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Exam Study Guide. Kayleigh Ruller and Kathryn Hintze. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRiGz8qQig4 Stop at I:40 Definite and Indefinite Articles. Definite Articles are used to specify an object, person, or place. Indefinite Articles are used when there is any old object, person, or place.

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Exam study guide

Exam Study Guide

KayleighRullerand Kathryn Hintze

Http www youtube com watch v irigz8qqig4 stop at i 40 definite and indefinite articles
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRiGz8qQig4Stop at I:40 Definite and Indefinite Articles

  • Definite Articles are used to specify an object, person, or place.

  • Indefinite Articles are used when there is any old object, person, or place.

  • To make it easier to understand, let’s start with examples in English and move to Spanish:

    Definite: the/these/those chocolate chip cookie (s)

    Indefinite: a/an chocolate chip cookie(a)

    Definite: Indefinite:


    Use Indefinite: Use Definite:

    _____ gato es feo. ________ fritas son delicioso.

Adjective agreement

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80O0q9e-mHQ. Start at 1:15

Adjective Agreement

  • In Spanish, most adjectives change form, depending upon whether the word they modify is masculine or feminine and singular or plural.

  • So if an object is masculine and singular the end of the adjective describing it, should end in an “o”

  • If it is masculine and plural, the adjective should end in “os”

  • If an object is feminine and singular the end of the adjective describing it, should end in an “a”

  • If it is plural, adjective will be “as”

  • Adjectives ending in “e” change form for plural/singular but do not change form for masculine or feminine.

  • Most adjectives that end in a consonant have two forms: singular and plural by adding –es\

    Practice: Circle the correct answer

    1) La amigo es alto/alta.

    2) Los libros son rojo/ roja/rojos/rajas.

Subject pronouns
Subject Pronouns

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNqJle2NgyM. Stop at :30

  • The words "I" "you" "he" "she" "we" "you-all" and "they" are called subject pronouns. Spanish has corresponding subject pronouns and are conjugated accordingly and used before verbs and when talking about yourself, to others, with others, and about others.

  • Yo: I

  • Usted: you

  • Él: he

  • Ella: she

  • Nosotros(as): we **** If all the people you are with are girls change to –as****

  • ustedes: you-all

  • Ellos(as): they ****** If all the people/things you are talking about change to –as****

Ir a infinitive
Ir + A+ Infinitive

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGRj1SglH0Q Stop at :53

  • Many expressions in Spanish are formed by combining two verbs. When this happens, the first verb is conjugated, while the second verb stays in the infinitive form. ( which is the verb that ends in ar, er, ir)

  • A common situation like the one described above is …… ir a + infinitive = to be going to do something

  • Ir means to go and is conjugated as follows:

  • voyvasva

  • vamos

  • van

  • “A” is used in between the ir conjugation and the infinitive to express the word “to”. It is used as a preposition.

  • Practice:

    Yo _____a viajar a España., Sam va a invitar a muchas muchachas.

Estar emotions
Estar + Emotions

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3F5WNHt0Fso Start 1:53. Stop at 2:30

  • The verb estar (to be) is used to describe how you, others, etc. are feeling by using emotions and conjugating the verb estar.

  • Estar is conjugated like this:

  • Estoy

  • Estás

  • Está

  • Estamos

  • Están

    After estar is conjugated, add the emotion you or the person(s) are experiencing. Here are some common emotions:

    Triste (sad) Alegre/feliz (happy) Cansado (tired) Deprimido (depressed) Busy (ocupado) Worried (preocupado)

    Enfermo (sick) Nervous (nervioso) Emocionado (angry)

    Practice: Circle the correct spelling.

    Yo ______ nerveeoso/ nervioso

    Nosotros_____________ censaddo/ cansado

    Miranda __________ alegre/ allegray

Tener expressions
Tener Expressions

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpjeSS3FweE Stop at 1:05.

  • The verb “tener” is translated “to have”, tener can also be used in Spanish as an idiomatic expression. Although their literal translations sound odd to English speakers (ex. To have cold), that is how it is used in Spanish.

  • You can relate these tener expressions, to mean “to be adj.” rather than “to have adj.”

  • Here are some examples of tener expressions and the most common adjectives used with them:

  • tener _____ años ( to be _____ years old)

  • tener calor ( to be hot)

  • tener frío (to be cold)

  • tener hambre ( to be hungry )

  • tener sed (to be thirsty)

  • tener prisa ( to be late)

  • tener miedo a/de _____ (to be afraid of…)

  • tener razón ( to be right)

  • tener suerte (to be lucky)

Ser vs estar
Ser vs. Estar

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dot2t-qGKQQ, Some mistakes.

  • Estar and Ser are verbs that both mean “to be” but they are used with different expressions.

    We already know the conjugations of the irregular verb estar, now lets learn the conjugations of another irregular verb:

    Ser: Soy , eres, es, somos, son

    Here are some tricks that will help you to know when to use estar and when to use ser:

  • The acronym “PLACE” is used for estar.

  • P- position Estoy en la casa.

  • L-location Estoy en la clase.

  • A-action- ando, yendo Estamos estudiando.

  • C- condition Estan enfermos. Practice: Ser or Estar????

  • E- emotion Estamos contentos. Mi mama ______ una profesora.

    The acronym “DOCTOR” is used for Ser Yo_________ alegre.

    D- description La chica es bonita. La chico _______es my hijo.

    O- occupation La muchacha es una estudiante.

    C- characteristic Yo soy alta.

    T- time/date Es son las tres.

    O- origin El muchachas es de Charlotte.

    R- relationship La chica es mi hija.

Acabar de
Acabar De

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1BZalafcGNk. Stop at 1:05

  • Like we said earlier, two verbs together are often used to express something and the first verb is conjugated and the second one is in an infinitive form. One expression combines the verb acabar (conjugated) with an infinitive. The preposition "de" is always used after acabar.

  • It is used like this: (and you will see that acabar de means “to have just”.)

  • acabar de + infinitive = to have just done something.

    Ex) Acabas de invitar a muchas muchachas.You have just invited many girls.

    See how that works, now lets practice…. Conjugate acabar de and then follow it with an infinitive….

  • Cristina _____________hablar/habla con mi mamá.

  • Nosotros ______________leer/leemos el libro.

Present progressive

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cmoU18q-TUc. Start at :40, end at 2:20

Present Progressive

  • In Spanish, the present progressive (or –ing verb) is only used to describe an action that is in the process of taking place. It is not used for future actions like it is in English.

  • To form the present progressive in Spanish, combine a form of "estar" with the present participle (-ing verb)

  • So it would look like this in English: I am studying, I am laughinhg, We are smiling, She is skipping. etc……

  • To make the present progressive in Spanish all you have to do is drop the ending on the infinitive (ar, er, or ir) and add –ando to replace the –ar for ar verbs.Use –iendo to replace the ending for er and ir verbs.

  • If the letter before the ending (ar, ir, er) of verbs is a vowel (leer, creer, suguir, traer)

    Add -yendo

    Practice: Choose the correct present progressive.

    Yo Estoy estudiando /estudiendo español

    Sara y yo estamos leer/leyendo el libro.