Hittites - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

hittites n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Hittites PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 42
Hittites
1538 Views
Download Presentation
paul
Download Presentation

Hittites

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Hittites

  2. Who Were the Hittites? • Ancient Anatolian people • Lived in modern day Turkey and Syria • Existed in 1750 BCE

  3. Hittite History • Divided into 3 periods • Old Hittite Kingdom [1750-1500 BCE] • Middle Hittite Kingdom [1500-1430 BCE] • New Hittite Kingdom [1430-1180 BCE] Old Kingdom New Kingdom Middle Kingdom

  4. Old Hittite Kingdom: 1750-1500 BCE • Founded by Labarna I or Hattusili I • First king • Conquered the area of south and north of Hattusa • Attacked but did not capture the kingdom Yamkhad • The next king, Mursili I, conquered it • Responsible for the reintroduction of cuneiform

  5. Old Hittite Kingdom – MursiliIndividuals in History • Second King • Ruled from 1526-1556 BCE • Continued conquering • Aleppo in Northern Syria • Babylon • Ended the dynasty of Hammurabi and the Amorite people • Assassinated by his brother-in-law when he came home

  6. The Middle Kingdom: 1500-1430 BCE • Telepinu last monarch of the Old Kingdom • Began the length of weakness phase • Started to conduct alliances and write treaties • Shows Cooperation and Conflict

  7. The New Kingdom • Tudhaliya I • First king of New Kingdom • Helped Hittites emerge from the weak phase of darkness • Allied with Kizzuwanta and expanded the empire • Captured Assuwa [orgin of Asia]

  8. The Rise of Democratic Ideas • Significantly updated the law they took from the Old Bablyonians • Differences: 1. More merciful 2. No death penaly for minor crimes 3. More fines than death 4. Gave more power to the king • Basically everything on the Hittite territory belonged to the king [Monarchy]

  9. The Rise of Democratic Ideas • Even though the Hittites had a monarchy, they still helped shape our democracy.

  10. Iron • Hittites Started the Dawn of the Iron Age • First to make tools and weapons out of iron • Iron was harder, sharper, and cheaper to make than bronze and copper • Tried to keep iron a secret • Ironsmiths migrated and hepled other empires by bringing the idea of iron to them

  11. Continuity and Change Changes the way people live Cultural Development Helps develop art as well as weapons Technology in History First to create it Impact of Ideas Influences many others things Human-Environmental Interaction Blacksmiths Iron

  12. Religion • Polytheism • Adopted mostly the same gods of the Sumerian people and Old Babylonians • Whenever they conquered a group of people they adopt their gods they believed in to their religion

  13. Downfall • The Assyrians conquered the Hittites • Expand to the Euphratyes • Take trade routes

  14. Who were they? • Ancient Anatolian people • Language-variation of Indo-European (Uncovered in 1906) • Used cuneiform, developed from pictographs • Center-Hattusa (city) • Hittite translates “Son of Heth” (son of canan)

  15. Human-Geography/ Evironment Interaction • Based in Anatolia(Asia Minor) • Hattusa (Khattusha)-capital city • Nesa-secondary major city • Small amount of farming (warriors), later much more impact of farmlands

  16. History • Early Hittites: attempt to gain control of metal ore and products trade • Conquered Babylon under Murshili I (1595 B.C.E) • Later war with Egypt (1192 B.C.E) • Conquered by Assyria and the “Sea People”, a group of invaders. (1185 B.C.E)

  17. Economy and Trade • Skilled metal workers • Grains, vegetables, and fruits • Grapes-wine • Varied craftspeople • Most craftsmen “controlled” by temple 

  18. Economy and Trade (continued) • Domesticated animals- ox, sheep, goats, horses, mules, donkeys, pigs, dogs. • Goats and sheep made milk and cheese • Oxen, horses, mules, and donkeys- beasts of burden • Records were written in cuneiform

  19. Cooperation and Conflict • The early Hittites were warlike and often fought surrounding nations, mostly Assyria • Tried to remain at peace with Egypt; marriage between kingdoms • Changes between distributed power and focused power (capital)

  20. Rulers and Leadership • Hereditary kings- dominant hereditary monarchy • Passed from father to ANY son, not always 1st son • Chief priest, acting in place of gods • Commander of military • Founders of first constitutional monarchy Notable Kings: Labarna I-founder Mursili I-sacked Babylon Tudhaliya III-killed when father died Suppiliuma II-fall of capital

  21. Laws • 200 paragraphs of laws; nearly as detailed as Hammurabi’s code • Defined all crimes • 2 versions of the code were found

  22. Religion and Worship • Religion and traditions drew on other cultures • Over 100 gods • Important gods: Teshub (storms), Khepat (sun) • Festivals occurred monthly • Believed in afterlife

  23. Technology • Hittites made many innovations in the field of metal working • Many people were craftsmen and worked as potters, textile makers, and many other jobs • Increased chariot effectiveness

  24. Continuity and Change • Hittites took religions from others • Kept what worked (iron), left what didn’t (bronze)

  25. Ideas • Controlled the market of metal ore and refinement trade • Large time use of chariots in wars and travel • Sacking of Babylon, leaving it open for invaders for about 100 years • Conquered most of Anatolia

  26. The Three Hittite Periods • Old Hittite Kingdom • 1750-1500 BCE • Middle Hittite Kingdom • 1500-1430 BCE • New Hittite Kingdom • 1430-1180 BCE

  27. What do we know about the Hittites? • Developed their own language • Nesile • Through 1100 BCE • Wrote in Cuneiform • Each civilization had own alteration • Found/translated tablets • Stupendous Metal Workers

  28. Cultural Development • Religion • Influenced by Mesopotamian mythology • Polytheistic • Biblical references • Referenced to in the Hebrew bible • Lived among Israelites • High military officers in King David’s army

  29. Geography • Second largest empire in Mesopotamia • Included parts of modern day Syria, Lebanon and Turkey • Empire was north of Canaan on the Central Anatolian Plateau • Capital was Hattusa (in modern day Turkey)

  30. Social Institutions • Royalty • King • Royal family • The pankus (monitered king’s activities) • Aristocracy • Commoners • Merchants • farmers • Slaves

  31. Government • First constitutional monarchy • King was leader • Produced Hittite laws • Less severe alteration of Hammurabi’s code • Death was rarely a punishment (murder resulted in a fine)

  32. Individuals in History • Tudhaliya I • First emperor • Bloodline ran four generations • Suppiluliuma I • Expanded the empire • 1344 to 1322 B.C.E • Bloodline ran two generations

  33. Land Distribution • King owned all land under his control • Individuals were only to allowed control land if served army • Resulted in many tenant farmers

  34. Technology • First to work with Iron • Stronger than bronze • Abundant in nature • Made innovations in weaponry • Iron made them stronger

  35. Economics • Economy based on farming • Main crops: wheat and barley • Livestock: cattle and sheep • Lands rich with minerals

  36. Cooperation and Conflict • Warriors • Soldiers kept hair long • Referred to by Pharaoh as “women soldiers” • Superior weapons • Stronger • Made of iron

  37. Bibliography “Hittites.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites> “The Hittites.” World Civilizations. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008 <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/HITTITES.HTM> “List of Hittite Kings.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Hittite_kings>

  38. Bibliography (cont.) “Hittites.” Looklex Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008 <http://lexicorient.com/e.o/hittites.htm> “History of the Hittites.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittite_empire> Jantzen, Steven L. and Kreiger, Larry S. and Neil, Kenneth. World History: Perspectives on the Past. Lexington, Massachusetts and Toranto, Ontario: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992.

  39. Bibliography • Wallenfels, The Ancient Near East Volume II. Charles Scribner’s Sons, San Francisco; publishing year 2000 • Wikipedia.org, Hittites. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites November 13, 2008;

  40. Bibliography • <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites> • www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/HITTITES.HTM • <www.crystalinks.com/hittites.html>

  41. T H E E N D