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Hittites. Who Were the Hittites?. Ancient Anatolian people Lived in modern day Turkey and Syria Existed in 1750 BCE. Hittite History. Divided into 3 periods Old Hittite Kingdom [1750-1500 BCE] Middle Hittite Kingdom [1500-1430 BCE] New Hittite Kingdom [1430-1180 BCE]. Old Kingdom.

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who were the hittites
Who Were the Hittites?
  • Ancient Anatolian people
  • Lived in modern day Turkey and Syria
  • Existed in 1750 BCE
hittite history
Hittite History
  • Divided into 3 periods
    • Old Hittite Kingdom [1750-1500 BCE]
    • Middle Hittite Kingdom [1500-1430 BCE]
    • New Hittite Kingdom [1430-1180 BCE]

Old Kingdom

New Kingdom

Middle Kingdom

old hittite kingdom 1750 1500 bce
Old Hittite Kingdom: 1750-1500 BCE
  • Founded by Labarna I or Hattusili I
    • First king
    • Conquered the area of south and north of Hattusa
  • Attacked but did not capture the kingdom Yamkhad
    • The next king, Mursili I, conquered it
    • Responsible for the reintroduction of cuneiform
old hittite kingdom mursili individuals in history
Old Hittite Kingdom – MursiliIndividuals in History
  • Second King
    • Ruled from 1526-1556 BCE
    • Continued conquering
      • Aleppo in Northern Syria
      • Babylon
        • Ended the dynasty of Hammurabi and the Amorite people
    • Assassinated by his brother-in-law when he came home
the middle kingdom 1500 1430 bce
The Middle Kingdom: 1500-1430 BCE
  • Telepinu last monarch of the Old Kingdom
    • Began the length of weakness phase
    • Started to conduct alliances and write treaties
    • Shows Cooperation and Conflict
the new kingdom
The New Kingdom
  • Tudhaliya I
    • First king of New Kingdom
    • Helped Hittites emerge from the weak phase of darkness
    • Allied with Kizzuwanta and expanded the empire
      • Captured Assuwa [orgin of Asia]
the rise of democratic ideas
The Rise of Democratic Ideas
  • Significantly updated the law they took from the Old Bablyonians
  • Differences:

1. More merciful

2. No death penaly for minor crimes

3. More fines than death

4. Gave more power to the king

  • Basically everything on the Hittite territory belonged to the king [Monarchy]
the rise of democratic ideas1
The Rise of Democratic Ideas
  • Even though the Hittites had a monarchy, they still helped shape our democracy.
slide10
Iron
  • Hittites Started the Dawn of the Iron Age
    • First to make tools and weapons out of iron
      • Iron was harder, sharper, and cheaper to make than bronze and copper
    • Tried to keep iron a secret
      • Ironsmiths migrated and hepled other empires by bringing the idea of iron to them
slide11
Continuity and Change

Changes the way people live

Cultural Development

Helps develop art as well as weapons

Technology in History

First to create it

Impact of Ideas

Influences many others things

Human-Environmental Interaction

Blacksmiths

Iron
religion
Religion
  • Polytheism
    • Adopted mostly the same gods of the Sumerian people and Old Babylonians
    • Whenever they conquered a group of people they adopt their gods they believed in to their religion
downfall
Downfall
  • The Assyrians conquered the Hittites
    • Expand to the Euphratyes
    • Take trade routes
who were they
Who were they?
  • Ancient Anatolian people
  • Language-variation of Indo-European

(Uncovered in 1906)

  • Used cuneiform, developed from pictographs
  • Center-Hattusa (city)
  • Hittite translates “Son of Heth” (son of canan)
human geography evironment interaction
Human-Geography/ Evironment Interaction
  • Based in Anatolia(Asia Minor)
  • Hattusa (Khattusha)-capital city
  • Nesa-secondary major city
  • Small amount of farming (warriors), later much more impact of farmlands
history
History
  • Early Hittites: attempt to gain control of metal ore and products trade
  • Conquered Babylon under Murshili I

(1595 B.C.E)

  • Later war with Egypt (1192 B.C.E)
  • Conquered by Assyria and the “Sea People”, a group of invaders. (1185 B.C.E)
economy and trade
Economy and Trade
  • Skilled metal workers
  • Grains, vegetables, and fruits
  • Grapes-wine
  • Varied craftspeople
  • Most craftsmen “controlled” by temple 
economy and trade continued
Economy and Trade (continued)
  • Domesticated animals- ox, sheep, goats, horses, mules, donkeys, pigs, dogs.
  • Goats and sheep made milk and cheese
  • Oxen, horses, mules, and donkeys- beasts of burden
  • Records were written in cuneiform
cooperation and conflict
Cooperation and Conflict
  • The early Hittites were warlike and often fought surrounding nations, mostly Assyria
  • Tried to remain at peace with Egypt; marriage between kingdoms
  • Changes between distributed power

and focused power (capital)

rulers and leadership
Rulers and Leadership
  • Hereditary kings- dominant hereditary monarchy
  • Passed from father to ANY son, not always 1st son
  • Chief priest, acting in place of gods
  • Commander of military
  • Founders of first constitutional monarchy

Notable Kings:

Labarna I-founder

Mursili I-sacked Babylon

Tudhaliya III-killed when

father died

Suppiliuma II-fall of capital

slide21
Laws
  • 200 paragraphs of laws; nearly as detailed as Hammurabi’s code
  • Defined all crimes
  • 2 versions of the code were found
religion and worship
Religion and Worship
  • Religion and traditions drew on other cultures
  • Over 100 gods
  • Important gods: Teshub (storms), Khepat (sun)
  • Festivals occurred monthly
  • Believed in afterlife
technology
Technology
  • Hittites made many innovations in the field of metal working
  • Many people were craftsmen and worked as potters, textile makers, and many other jobs
  • Increased chariot effectiveness
continuity and change
Continuity and Change
  • Hittites took religions from others
  • Kept what worked (iron), left what didn’t (bronze)
ideas
Ideas
  • Controlled the market of metal ore and refinement trade
  • Large time use of chariots in wars and travel
  • Sacking of Babylon, leaving it open for invaders for about 100 years
  • Conquered most of Anatolia
the three hittite periods
The Three Hittite Periods
  • Old Hittite Kingdom
    • 1750-1500 BCE
  • Middle Hittite Kingdom
    • 1500-1430 BCE
  • New Hittite Kingdom
    • 1430-1180 BCE
what do we know about the hittites
What do we know about the Hittites?
  • Developed their own language
    • Nesile
      • Through 1100 BCE
  • Wrote in Cuneiform
    • Each civilization had own alteration
    • Found/translated tablets
  • Stupendous Metal Workers
cultural development
Cultural Development
  • Religion
    • Influenced by Mesopotamian mythology
    • Polytheistic
  • Biblical references
    • Referenced to in the Hebrew bible
      • Lived among Israelites
      • High military officers in King David’s army
geography
Geography
  • Second largest empire in Mesopotamia
  • Included parts of modern day Syria, Lebanon and Turkey
  • Empire was north of Canaan on the Central Anatolian Plateau
  • Capital was Hattusa (in modern day Turkey)
social institutions
Social Institutions
  • Royalty
    • King
    • Royal family
    • The pankus (monitered king’s activities)
    • Aristocracy
  • Commoners
    • Merchants
    • farmers
  • Slaves
government
Government
  • First constitutional monarchy
    • King was leader
  • Produced Hittite laws
    • Less severe alteration of Hammurabi’s code
    • Death was rarely a punishment (murder resulted in a fine)
individuals in history
Individuals in History
  • Tudhaliya I
    • First emperor
    • Bloodline ran four generations
  • Suppiluliuma I
    • Expanded the empire
    • 1344 to 1322 B.C.E
    • Bloodline ran two generations
land distribution
Land Distribution
  • King owned all land under his control
    • Individuals were only to allowed control land if served army
  • Resulted in many tenant farmers
technology1
Technology
  • First to work with Iron
    • Stronger than bronze
    • Abundant in nature
  • Made innovations in weaponry
    • Iron made them stronger
economics
Economics
  • Economy based on farming
  • Main crops: wheat and barley
  • Livestock: cattle and sheep
  • Lands rich with minerals
cooperation and conflict1
Cooperation and Conflict
  • Warriors
    • Soldiers kept hair long
    • Referred to by Pharaoh as “women soldiers”
  • Superior weapons
    • Stronger
    • Made of iron
bibliography
Bibliography

“Hittites.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008

“The Hittites.” World Civilizations. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008

“List of Hittite Kings.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008

bibliography cont
Bibliography (cont.)

“Hittites.” Looklex Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008

“History of the Hittites.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008.

Jantzen, Steven L. and Kreiger, Larry S. and Neil, Kenneth. World History: Perspectives on the Past. Lexington, Massachusetts and Toranto, Ontario: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992.

bibliography1
Bibliography
  • Wallenfels, The Ancient Near East Volume II. Charles Scribner’s Sons, San Francisco; publishing year 2000
  • Wikipedia.org, Hittites.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites November 13, 2008;

bibliography2
Bibliography
  • www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/HITTITES.HTM
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