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“FEDERALIST ERA”. “A New Nation” -Washington -Adams. Answer These Questions ( 5 Minutes). NAME 10/5/09 Period __. From the RESEARCH TOPICS from FRIDAY Who was Washington’s Sec. of Treasury?

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federalist era
“FEDERALIST ERA”

“A New Nation”

-Washington -Adams

slide2

Answer These Questions ( 5 Minutes)

NAME 10/5/09 Period __

From the RESEARCH TOPICS from FRIDAY

  • Who was Washington’s Sec. of Treasury?
  • What new tax was introduced to affect the frontier farmers west of the Appalachian Mountains?
  • What rebellion will be the 1st TEST of the new Constitutional Government?
  • What city will be built as a Compromise between the northern and southern states?
  • Which politician will express Loose views of interpreting the Constitution?
  • Which politician will express Strict views of interpreting the Constitution?
  • What did Washington ask us NOT to do in his Farewell Address?
federalist era3
“FEDERALIST ERA”

Ch.6 “A New Nation”

Unit Test

TOMORROW

the new government
The New Government
  • George Washington –CREATES the MODEL
  • Sets early “Precedents – Traditions”
    • Oct. 3, 1789 Thanksgiving Proclamation
    • Thursday Nov. 26
      • National Day of Prayer and Thanksgiving
    • Formal Ceremonies of President (WHY?)
  • Judiciary Act of 1789
    • Section 25 /Fed. Appeal of State decision
  • Cabinet (Advise the Pres.)
  • Thomas Jefferson - Sec. of State
  • Alexander Hamilton - Sec. of Treasury
  • Economic Issues (Hamilton)
    • National Bank Debate
slide5
Huge War Debt
    • (federal gov’t will take over the states war debts – South NOT pleased)
  • New Capital Compromise (D.C. – South)
    • Pierre L’Enfant / Benjamin Banneker
  • Protective Tariff of 1789
    • Tax on Imports / Protects US Jobs
  • Whiskey Tax of 1791 (NW frontier)
  • Whiskey Rebellion 1794 (1st test)

Will the Ex. Branch enforce the law?

  • Washington “enforces” the law (1st Test of the Constitution)
slide7
Alexander Hamilton -Federalist

Rich,Educated -High voting stand.

Strong Central Gov -some restrictions -bigger gov’t

Trade, Manuf., etc..

Government Direct -Gov’t aid -National Bank -Internal Taxes

Thomas Jefferson -Republican

Common people -low voting stand.

Weak Cent. Gov’t -individual rights -smaller gov’t

Agricultural

Individuals Create -NO gov’t aid -NO national bank -NO internal taxes

Federalist

Anti-Federalist

slide8
Loose Interpretation of Constitution (Liberal)

Bankers, merchants, professional people, wealthy farmers

New England & North Eastern States

Oppose French Revolution

should support England (War)

  • Strict Interpretation of Constitution (Conservative)
  • Artisans, craftsman, shopkeepers, small farmers, NW frontier settlers
  • South, New Frontier Territories (NW)
  • Support French Revolution
  • Should support France (War)
slide9
French Revolution (divided opinions)
  • Federalist (oppose) Republican (support)
  • Neutrality position (War – Fr./Eng.)
    • Both England/France “Bullying us”
  • Edmond Genet mission (France)
  • John Jay’s Treaty – England (Americans Object - angry) A. Hamilton - treason
  • Thomas Pinckney Treaty 1795
    • Spain opens Miss. River, lands: east of Mississippi and Northern Florida (Alabama, Miss, Tenn. Ky)
government takes new course
Government takes new course
  • Washingtons’s Farewell Address NO - Permanent Foreign Alliances - Political Parties
  • John Adams (2nd Pres) Federalist
  • Sectionalism Grows (of the country)
    • New England
    • North East
    • Northwest Frontier
    • South
slide11

NATIONALISM Feelings & Sectionalism Growing -North East (NE, NY, NJ, Penn) -North West Frontier -South (New Territory)

Original 13 Colonies -New England -Middle -Southern

government takes new course12
Government takes new course
  • XYZ Affair (France)
    • “any amount of money for war, but not one penny for tribute”
  • Federalist Policies QUESTIONED
  • Alien & Sedition Acts (Anti-Republican)
  • Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
    • Thomas Jefferson / James Madison
  • NULLIFICATION THEORY
    • STATES can declares laws UNCONSTITUTIONAL (IGNORE Federal Law)
    • hereby declare, that the acts aforesaid, are unconstitutional; and that the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each, for co-operating with this state, in maintaining the Authorities, Rights, and Liberties, referred to the States respectively, or to the people.
who decides constitutional or unconstitutional
FEDERALIST

Judicial Review

SUPREME COURT

Marbury v. Madison

Jeff.Republicans

Nullification Theory

STATES

Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

Who Decides Constitutional or Unconstitutional?

CIVIL WAR DECIDES

slide14

Definition: First decision by the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional (1803).

At the very end of his term, President John Adams had made many federal appointments, including William Marbury as justice of the peace in D. C.

Thomas Jefferson, the new president, refused to recognize the appointment of Marbury.

The normal practice of making such appointments was to deliver a "commission," or notice, of appointment. This was normally done by the Secretary of State. Jefferson's Secretary of State at the time was James Madison.

At the direction of Jefferson, Madison refused to deliver Marbury's commission. Marbury sued Madison, and the Supreme Court took the case.

Chief Justice John Marshall wrote that the Judiciary Act of 1789, which spelled out the practice of delivering such commissions for judges and justices of the peace, was unconstitutional because it the gave the Supreme Court authority that was denied it by Article III of the Constitution. Thus, the Supreme Court said, the Judiciary Act of 1789 was illegal and not to be followed.

This was the first time the Supreme Court struck down a law because it was unconstitutional. It was the beginning of the practice of "judicial review."

  • John Marshall (Federalist)
    • Chief Justice of Supreme Court
    • EXPANDS the power of Federal Gov’t
  • Jefferson (R)- Adams (F) Election (1800) -Power is transferred w/o Fight (2nd Test)
  • Judiciary Act of 1801 - case of the “Midnight Judges” 1803 - Marbury v. Madison Judicial Review
    • Supreme Court Decided UNCONSTITUIONAL
remember where we were the new united states will we last as a country
Remember where we were “The NEW United States” (will we last as a country?)
  • Articles of Confederation
    • PROBLEMS
      • Foreign Affairs
      • Economic
      • Political Unity
  • Articles of CONSTITUTION
    • Still have to fix these problems
slide16
Foreign

British refuse to leave Great Lakes

We don’t pay our debts

1784 Spain closesMississippi River

Economic

HUGE DEBT($160 million)

Continental Congress borrowed from foreign nations

Congress & States sell BONDS to pay for war

States & Congress Printed money (worthless)

No taxes, or tariffs to PAY Debts

Debtors v. Lenders

High Taxes in states to pay back Debts

Paper Currency (print or not print more $)

Political

NO National Unity

States Interests 1st over national interests/needs

Small states v. Large states powers/fears

NEW Northwest Lands (Who Gets What-How Much)

federalist era 1789 1801
Federalist Era ( 1789 - 1801 )
  • FEDERAL ACHIEVEMENTS
  • Established Credit / National Economy
  • Created Court system
  • Showed government can enforce laws
  • 3 “new” states admitted into the Union
  • Kept nation out of war / foreign policy
the bill of rights
“ THE BILL OF RIGHTS”
  • 1st - Religious and Political Freedom
    • Worship (free exercise)
    • Speech
    • Press
    • Assemble / Petition
  • Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or of the right of the people peacably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
  • 2nd - Right to Bear Arms
  • A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
the bill of rights19
“ THE BILL OF RIGHTS”
  • 3rd Quartering Troops
  • No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be presented by law
  • 4th Search and Seizure
    • Probable Cause
  • The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
slide20
5th - Rights of Accused Persons
    • Testify against yourself
    • Double Jeopardy
    • Just Compensation (eminent domain)
  • DUE PROCESS of LAW
  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life and limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation
slide21
6th -Right to a Speedy, Public Trial
    • Confront witnesses
    • Assistant of Counsel (lawyer)
  • All criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
slide22
7th - Trial by Jury in Civil Cases
  • In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
  • 8th - Limits of Fines & Punishment
  • CRUEL & UNUSUAL PUNISHMENT
    • Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
slide23
9th - Rights of People
    • “source of power”
  • This enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
  • 10th - Powers of States & People
    • -RESERVED POWERS
  • The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people
  • ELASTIC CLAUSE (Implied FEDERAL Powers)
    • To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the Constitution in the government of the United States or in any department thereof.
unit test wednesday
Unit TestWednesday
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Constitutional Convention
  • Constitution and How the Government Works
  • The Federalist Era
slide25
Louisiana Purchase

Lewis & Clark

Sacajawea

War of 1812

Causes / Effects

Battle of New Orleans

Star Spangled Banner

National Identity Develops (how)

Erie Canal

Rise of New York City

Development of National Infrastructure

National Roads

Toll Roads,

Canals

Railroads

Importance of the Monroe Doctrine

Era of Good Feelings

Unit 4 READING SHEETS* Read the First Section* Find & Read about these Topics in Text* Explain / Define the Topics
slide26

Choose ONE

SHORT ESSAY CHOICES for Unit 3

  • Explain the Checks & Balance System of Government
  • Explain How a Bill Becomes a Law
  • Compare and Contrast the Political Views of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
  • Explain the Nullification Theory and the Issue of States Rights v. Federal Power