The Federalist Era. 1789-1800. “ Our prevailing passions are ambition and interest; and it will be the duty of a wise government to avail itself of those passions, in order to make them subservient to the public good.” Alexander Hamilton, 1787. How was this viewpoint manifested in Hamilton’s
“ Our prevailing passions are ambition and interest; and it will be the duty of a wise government to avail itself of those passions, in order to make them subservient to the public good.”Alexander Hamilton, 1787
How was this viewpoint manifested in Hamilton’s
financial program as Secretary of the Treasury?
All three ingredients in his plan—funding, assumption, and the bank—were vigorously contested in Congress, with Madison leading the opposition. The watchword of the critics was consolidation, an ideological cousin to monarchy
Opponents of the program feared the program served the interests of the wealthy elite at the expense of indebted small farmers and Revolutionary War Veterans
“I consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground: “all powers not delegated , to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states, or to the people.) (XIIth amendment.) [actually Amendment X] To take a single step beyond the boundaries around the powers of Congress, is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition.”
“Now it appears to the Secretary of the Treasury that this general principle is inherent in the very definition of government and essential to every step of the progress to be made by that of the United States, namely: That every power vested in a government is in its nature sovereign and includes , by force of the term, a right to employ all the means requisite and fairly applicable to the attainment of the ends of such power…”
“The incorporation of a bank is a constitutional measure;…the objections taken to the bill, in this respect, are ill-founded.”
Analyze the causes and significance of the Whiskey Rebellion.
Believing the United States to be too weak to fight a war and opposed to risking American independence, Washington issued a Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793 to keep the United States out of the conflict.
Arguing that the Franco-American alliance had been made with the French monarchy and not the French Revolutionary government, Washington reasoned that the United States had no treaty obligation to aid the French in an offensive war.
Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Drew support from the South, small farmers, and urban artisans
Favored a weak central government and a strict interpretation of the Constitution
Opposed the national bank and protective tariffs
Favored agricultural interests
Favored the French over the British in foreign affairs
Exhausted after the diplomatic and partisan battles of his second term, Washington decided to retire. Assisted by Alexander Hamilton, the president wrote a Farewell Address (actually a letter for publication in a Philadelphia newspaper) in late 1796. In this message, which had enormous influence because of Washington’s prestige, the president
Analyze the contributions of John Adams in helping to establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution.