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THE FEDERALIST ERA. Carol Jean Cox. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800. Federalists Versus Anti-federalists Issues Facing the New Government Hamilton’s Financial Program Debate on the Interpretation of the Constitution Emergence of a Two Party System Decline of the Federalists.

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the federalist era

THE FEDERALIST ERA

Carol Jean Cox

federalist era 1790 s 1800
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Federalists Versus Anti-federalists
  • Issues Facing the New Government
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
  • Debate on the Interpretation of the Constitution
  • Emergence of a Two Party System
  • Decline of the Federalists
federalist era 1790 s 18003
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Federalists - people who were in favor of a strong central government
    • Federalists in full power
      • Congress & Supreme Court were Federalists
    • George Washington - first President 1790
      • no election- unanimous for Washington
      • no elections for first few Presidents
      • A majority of the founding fathers became involved in the government
federalist era 1790 s 18004
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Federalists
    • Federalists--> first election - caucus (group) nominates a President
      • Washington stepped down after 2 terms
      • Adams served 4 years (1796-1800)
  • Anti-Federalists
    • Anti-Federalists --> those against a strong federal government
    • Republicans (Jeffersonians)
        • later Democrat/Republicans
        • historical beginnings of Democrat Party
federalist era 1790 s 18005
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Issues Facing the New Government
    • U.S. weak
      • no navy - little army - Indians to deal with
      • problems on the international scene
        • e.g. Britain, Spain
    • Owed money
      • $55 million
      • $11 million owed to other countries
      • Most owed to Americans from Revolutionary War
federalist era 1790 s 18006
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Issues Facing the New Government
    • Not really a united country
      • European - wait & see attitudes
      • noted failure of Article Government
      • wondered about the President for four years
federalist era 1790 s 18007
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
    • Hamilton- Washington’s aide in the Revolutionary War
      • now Secretary of Treasury
      • an elitist- aristocrat - slave owner
      • rich governor of Massachusetts

*** problem/issue - how to raise revenue

    • tariff - tax on imports
      • foreign company pays tax
federalist era 1790 s 18008
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
    • Excise Tax - (luxury tax) Fed. Gov. Tax
      • jewelry, cigarette, liquor,
      • governments of states obligated to collect
      • not a state tax
    • Sale of Western Lands
      • Northwest Territory
      • all lands to Mississippi
federalist era 1790 s 18009
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
    • Assuming State Debts (credibility)
      • central government will take over state debts
      • states owed money to their citizens and from and Cont. Congress & Articles Gov.
      • why assume debts?
        • because citizenry will take stock in it
        • creditors will look to central government (congress) in future for financing
      • solidifies Fed. Gov in eyes of citizens
federalist era 1790 s 180010
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
    • Government coins money
      • dollar came from Spanish
    • Funding
      • creating a new debt to pay off the old debt
      • Government issues 3%, 4% notes like savings bonds
        • whenever cashed in 3%
        • collect at 3% - trade them for 6% with extension of time
        • few of veterans from Rev War still had bonds

Buys time to raise funds

federalist era 1790 s 180011
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
    • ** TROUBLE: Virginia said not vote for assuming loans because they had paid off debts.
      • Compromise - capital near Virginia
      • VA & MA gave up land for Washington D.C.
      • technically it was in the south
federalist era 1790 s 180013
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
    • NATIONAL BANK - Bank of the U.S.
    • What to do with money?
    • Depository for Federal government revenue
    • Bank chartered for 20 years (1791)
    • (battle for bank when it comes up for renewal)
    • Start with $10 million
    • 1/5 Federal Government Funds
    • Remainder from Private Funds
federalist era 1790 s 180014
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Debate of the Interpretation of the Constitution 1791
    • Anti/fed point of view -
      • Jefferson/Madison (strict interpretation)
      • (Jefferson in Paris during constitution)
        • said Mr. Hamilton no provision for central bank
        • concerned too powerful
    • Federalist position
      • Hamilton is a staunch federalist
      • loose interpretation

*** Leads to the emergence of political powers

federalist era 1790 s 180015
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Emergence of a Two Party System
    • Reasons for the division creation of 2 parties
    • Financial Reasons
      • funding, assuming, tariffs excise taxes
    • Sectional Differences
      • North- Maryland (north)
      • South - Virginia (south)
      • West - territories to be states
      • different views of tariffs North/South
      • west - statehood area improvements
federalist era 1790 s 180016
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Decline of the Federalists

(issues causing)

    • Indians Causing Problems
      • Federalists not dealing with effectively
      • Republicans criticize
    • French Revolution (Bloody)
      • Federalists not decisive
      • more criticism from Republicans
federalist era 1790 s 180017
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Decline of the Federalists
    • Whiskey Rebellion
      • Western Pennsylvania REGULATORS
      • Lower class not happy w/ another tax
      • used guns MOB ACTION
        • set off by the excise tax on whiskey
        • whiskey most lucrative product of area
        • tax collectors shot at - intimidation
      • Response - Washington on horse leads 15,000 troops

show of force to intimidate &

        • to show strength of central gov. (not weak)
        • *** set things in motion for decline of Federalists
federalist era 1790 s 180018
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Decline of the Federalists
    • Alien & Sedition Acts (1798)
      • Alien act - increased time for citizenship
        • affects lots of immigrants because of Europe rev.
        • law to decrease the support of the immigrants
        • for the anti-fed side to decrease opposing
        • party's power
      • Sedition Act - a crime punishable by fine & Imprisonment to speak against the Fed. Gov.
        • (George Wash. favored this though not in power)
        • 5 journalists imprisoned for federalists
        • 25 went to trial
federalist era 1790 s 180019
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Decline of the Federalists
    • Democrat/Republicans respond
    • (Madison/Jefferson - fire up pens anonymously)
    • wroteKentucky & Virginia Resolutions 1798
    • states can choose to make null and void any law passed by the Federal Government
    • states prerogative - states rights
    • similar to the Summary of the Rights of

British America

    • denouncing Sedition Act
    • emphasizing states/rights
federalist era 1790 s 180020
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Decline of the Federalists
    • Election Of 1800
      • Federalists (Adams) vs. Republicans (Jefferson)
      • Popular vote with electoral college
      • Jefferson - President
      • Hamilton/Burr conflict - duel kills Hamilton
    • Epithet (Summary)
      • Federalist Era 1790 -1800
      • dominance of single political party
      • application of constitution powers in
      • favor of a strong central government
      • favored the merchants/commerce
federalist era 1790 s 180021
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Decline of the Federalists

"Federalists served as a halfway house

between European past and American future.”

Henry Adams

(great grandson of John Adams & noted writer )

European Elite ---> American Democracy

SHIFT OF POWER CAME WITH JEFFERSON

federalist era 1790 s 180022
FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800
  • Federalists Versus Anti-federalists
  • Issues Facing the New Government
  • Hamilton’s Financial Program
  • Debate on the Interpretation of the Constitution
  • Emergence of a Two Party System
  • Decline of the Federalists
the federalist era23

THE FEDERALIST ERA

Carol Jean Cox