Washington’s “Life Mask” Washington’s “Death Mask”
George Washington and his first cabinet. Washington's Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, and his Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, were in controversy over fiscal policy early in Washington's administration. L to R Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State; seated Henry Knox, Secretary of War; Edmund Randolph, Attorney General & Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury.
Alexander Hamilton1755-1804 “A national debt, if it is not excessive, will be to us a national blessing.”Alexander Hamilton
Thomas Jefferson1743-1826 • “Paper is poverty,... it is only the ghost of " money, and not money itself." --Thomas Jefferson to Edward Carrington, 1788. ME 7:36
I. Hamiltonians vs. Jeffersonians • A. Hamilton's views--Man is irrational, corrupt, and guided by base instincts. • 1) Sovereignty must rest with a strong central government insensitive to the popular will • 2) Government's function is maintain order in a potentially chaotic society. It needs to be remote and secure from the people's emotional uprisings. • B. Jefferson's views--man is rational, capable of self-improvement. • 1) Government exists to protect man's natural rights to life, liberty, and happiness. • 2) The greatest threat to man's freedom is tyrannical government. It needs to be limited in its powers and completely responsive to the needs and desires of the people. • 3) State governments should have greater power because they are less likely to be despotic.
Whiskey Rebellion (1794) • How did it end differently than Shay’s rebellion? • Part of Hamilton’s plan was a Tax on Whiskey. • 2000 armed men rose up to protest the excise tax that was part of Hamilton’s plan. • Washington and 13,000 troops responded.
II. Hamilton's Financial Plan • A. Protective tariff to stimulate industry • B. Willingness to assume debts of states • C. Willingness to assume Confederation's debts • D. Establishment of a national bank. Purposes: • 1) Repository of national assets • 2) Issue paper money based on assets • 3) Source of investment capital • E. Whiskey Excise Tax--burden fell on western farmers • 1) Whiskey Rebellion (1794)--2000 armed men • 2) Washington leads militia to put down revolt
III. Jeffersonian Opposition to Hamilton's Plans • A. Strict constructionist view--creation of U.S. Bank exceeded Congressional authority • B. 10th Amendment forbids the national government exercising powers not delegated to it. • C. Commercial and manufacturing interests favored over farming interests.
1789-1815 • And the Age of Napoleon
France • The U.S. had a treaty with France. (1778) • When the French revolution became radical, there was a debate over whether we should still support France. • Washington declared American Neutrality.
The Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 A Proclamation • Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain, and the United Netherlands, of the one part, and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerant Powers; G. Washington - April, 1793
Securing Our Borders • The Jay Treaty • Settled claims with British in the west • Pinckney Treaty • Spain gave us • lands in Florida • free navigation of the Mississippi river. France gets Mad!!!
Jay's Treaty • The Treaty eliminated British control of western posts within two years, established America's claim for damages from British ship seizures, and provided America a limited right to trade in the West Indies.
Pinckney’s Treaty • The U.S. was granted free navigation of the Mississippi River from Spain. • Three year access to the port of New Orleans. • U.S. and Spanish border set at 31st parallel.
Washington’s Farewell • “In contemplating the causes which may disturb our union it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations--Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western -- whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is real difference of local interests and views.” “Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other.”
“The XYZ Affair” • The XYZ Affair cartoon depicts the United States as a maiden being victimized by the French Directorate while Britain sits aloof on a hill and European leaders discuss America’s plight.
President Adams • Sectionalism- • Adams tried to avoid war in France. • He sent delegates to Meet with a French official named Talleyrand. • Three French officials demanded a bribe of $250,000 before they would talk. • Called the affair As a result… XYZ
Millions for defense, but not one cent for Tribute!
The Alien and Sedition Acts • What were they? • Who created them? • How were they used?
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Who wrote them? • What did they say? Compact theory Nullification
AURORAAugust 22, 1797The newspaper that inspired the Sedition Act of 1798 • It is ironic that this issue advertises an elixir for yellow fever, as Bache will die from that cause in September 1798. • On page two, Bache challenges John Fenno, editor of the Gazette of the United States, a Federalist paper, to reply to questions whether President Adams, through his Secretary of State Timothy Pickering, was in collusion with the British Minister Liston, in plotting an invasion of Spanish Florida
INDEPENDENT CHRONICLE April 29 - May 2, 1799The Republican Newspaper of Boston Thomas Adams, editor, died pending trial. His brother, Abijah, the bookkeeper, wasthen tried and jailed for Sedition.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves • RESOLVED, That the General Assembly of Virginia, doth unequivocably express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression either foreign or domestic, and that they will support the government of the United States in all measures warranted by the former. ….That the General Assembly doth also express its deep regret, that a spirit has in sundry instances, been manifested by the federal government, to enlarge its powers by forced constructions of the constitutional charter which defines them; …and inevitable consequence of which would be, to transform the present republican system of the United States, into an absolute, or at best a mixed monarchy. …That the General Assembly doth particularly protest against the palpable and alarming infractions of the Constitution, in the two late cases of the "Alien and Sedition Acts" passed at the last session of Congress;
…like dispositions of the other states,in confidence that they will concur with this commonwealth in declaring, as it does hereby declare, that the acts aforesaid, are unconstitutional; and that the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each, for co-operating with this state, in maintaining the Authorities, Rights, and Liberties, referred to the States respectively, or to the people.
The 12th Amendment • The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;--
“Revolution of 1800” • Jefferson- Reduced Size and Control of the Federal Government • Reduced the Federal Budget and Debt • Repealed the Whiskey Tax • Cut Military Spending by One-Half • Kept Hamilton’s Financial Plan • Neutrality between Britain and France maintained
Marbury v Madison • James Madison Secretary of State
What to do about France? • Spain coerced by Napoleon to sign a treaty with France – giving France control of the Louisiana Territory • France/Napoleon hope to create a “New France” Empire in the Americas – this could end the U.S.’s access to the Mississippi and New Orleans • Toussiant L’Ouverture overthrew the French in Haiti BLOCKING this from happening (Haiti would act as a launch for a new French Empire
France cont’d Jefferson sends delegates to negotiate a purchase of New Orleans – for up to $10 Million. • Due to war with Great Britain, French Foreign Minister Talleyrand offers ALL of Louisiana for $15 BEFORE we make an offer, France is desperate for $. • U.S. nearly DOUBLES in size • Is this CONSTITUTIONAL?