A Different Perception?What NGOs and Victims Think About a Hate Crime Legislation Caroline Bonnes and Michael Fingerle
Contents • Project Objectives • Methodology • Results • Hate Crime Survey • NGO Survey • Hate Crime Policy • Discussion
Goethe University - Project Objectives • Review • findingsconcerningtheimpactof Hate Crime on victimsandtheircommunities • existingvictimsupportservices • preventionconcepts • Exploringtheperspectiveofvictimsof Hate Crime, ofat-riskgroupsandofNGOsworkingwithvictims/at-riskgroups • Deepenourunderstanding on howthisknowledgecanbeintegratedinto a Hate Crime Policy
Methodology Focus Group • withexpertswithinthefieldof Hate Crime Research Objective: Deepenourourstandingof • whatvictimsandat-riskgroupsneed • whattheyand NGOs thinkabout a Hate Crime legislation Online Survey • withvictimsof Hate Crime andwithat-riskgroups(HC Survey) • withpeoplewhowork in organisationsthatworkagainstdiscriminationand/orwithvictimsof Hate Crime (NGO Survey) • combinationofquestionnaireand open questions German sample: • studiesare still missing in the German context • thereisnoconceptof Hate Crime in the German law
How much were you physically hurt? • How much did the incident impact you psychologically? How well did you cope with the incident?
Whatdidhelpyoucopingwiththeincidence? • Social support • Own inner strength (reflecting on it, self-confidence, positive way of thinking, etc.) • Time • Professional support (therapy, de-escalation training) • Forgetting / Repressing • Drugs / Alcohol • Music • Filing a complaint • Aggression, fighting, arming • nothing
Which type ofsupportforvictimsorforyourselfwouldyouwishfor? • Education of the public / more tolerance • professional support • low-threshold interventions (de-escalation trainings, educational events with practical guidelines, education on Hate Crimes) • (short time) therapy free of charge • anonymous contact points • help-hotline • police support • consequent law enforcement • being taken serious • acknowledgement of the Hate Crime • in public • at public authorities, etc.
Which type ofsupportforvictimsorforyourselfwouldyouwishfor? II • political support and law regulations • civil courage / moral courage • improved training for professionals • social support • to be allowed to defend myself
Hate Crime Policy What should be included into a Hate Crime Law? • Those that approved of a Hate Crime Law often voted for minor offences, such as discrimination, mobbing / libel and slander and structural discrimination Purpose of a Hate Crime Law • Sending a political signal • Establishment of a Hate Crime Law is useless • Negative consequences (such as more discrimination of the groups)
Sample N= 58 • 30 % broadspectrumofgroups • 70 % specialised on specialtargetgroups • sexual orientation, • ethnicalbackground, • religion, • disability, • subcultures • other
Experience with Hate Crime • Over 70 % werefamiliarwiththeterm Hate Crime • Over 90 % alreadyexperienced Hate Crimes in theireverydaywork. Type of Hate Crimes: • Most Hate Crime incidentswererelatedtoinsult, harrassmentandactsofviolence • Also casesof sexual assault, robbery, manslaughterandothersortsof Hate Crime wererepresented.
Resources Needed Financial resources / staff resources More time to work with the victims Professional support Political support and law regulations Already existing resources Network Limited financial resources Own professionality and professional experience Already existing professional measures Nothing
Whatkindofsupportandprotection do victimsof Hate Crime need? • Education • Acceptance and tolerance • police support • consequent law enforcement • being taken serious • improved training for professionals • political support and law regulations • civil courage / moral courage • professional support • empowerment for the group
Whatkindofpreventivemeasureswouldbeneeded? • Education, especially in schools and pre-schools • Balanced and realistic reporting in the media • Measures to work with offenders
How to improve community settings • Building up networks • Provide meeting points for different groups to meet but also to meet each other • More financial and staff resources • Collaborators / Collaborating institutions
What should the public authorities do? • Education of employees • Anti-bias trainings within their institutions • Multilingual offers / multilingual employees • More resources for contact persons • Be open to collaborations with other institutions • Engagement with the public
Should a Hate Crime Law givethepossibilitytoenhancesentences?
Summary • Both NGOs andvictims/at-riskgroupsaresupporting a Hate Crime legislation • The wishforsupportandformoreresourcesseemstobe so strong thatitshouldbereflected in a Hate Crime policy • The same istrueforprograms on prevention • Localsupportsystemsandcommunitiesareseenaspivotal
Thank You! Michael Fingerle M.Fingerle@em.uni-frankfurt.de Caroline Bonnes Bonnes@em.uni-frankfurt.de