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  1. CHAPTER 2 • The Crime Picture

  2. Sources of Data • Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) • National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) • Offender Self-Reports

  3. Uniform Crime Reports

  4. Uniform Crime Reports • The reports began in 1930. • Data is collected by F.B.I. • Approximately 16,000 police agencies provide data. • Only crimes known to the police are included. • Law enforcement agencies submit reports voluntarily. • The UCR contains the Crime Index.

  5. UCR: Crime Index The Index is made up of Part I offenses. • violent crime • property crime

  6. UCR: Violent Crimes • murder • forcible rape • robbery • aggravated assault

  7. UCR: Property Crimes • burglary • larceny-theft • motor vehicle theft • arson

  8. UCR: Crime Index • crimes. • 100,000 population CrimeIndex=

  9. The Rate of Crime in the United States (1960-2000)

  10. UCR: Part I Crimes - 2001 Rate per 100,000Number murder 5.6 15,980 forcible rape 31.8 90,491 robbery 148.5 422,921 aggravated assault 318.5 907,219

  11. UCR: Part I Crimes - 2001 Rate per 100,000Number burglary 740.8 2,109,767 larceny-theft 2484.6 7,076,171 motor vehicle theft 430.6 1,226,457 arson 35.5 76,760

  12. The FBI Crime Clock

  13. UCR: Clearance Rate: … a measure that compares the number of crimes reported or discovered to the number of crimes solved through arrest or other means (i.e. death of suspect, finding out report of crime was falsified, etc.).

  14. Major Crimes

  15. Murder: …the unlawful killing of a human being. A generic term which, in common usage, may include first- and second-degree murder, as well as manslaughter, involuntary manslaughter, and other similar kinds of offenses.

  16. Murder: • Excludes: • deaths caused by negligence • suicide • accident • justifiable homicides

  17. Murder • July & August - highest number of reports • most common in southern states • persons age 20-24 most likely victims • most perpetrators also 20-24 years-old

  18. Murder • highest clearance rate of Part I offenses (typically over 60%) • firearms most frequent weapon of choice (63%) • knives second most frequent (13%)

  19. Murder • only 13% committed by strangers • most murders are committed by “acquaintances” • 27% are the result of an “argument”

  20. Serial Murder: …the killing of two or more people, on more than one occasion, over an extended period of time.

  21. Mass Murder: …the killing of three or more people, in a single event, by an offender who typically does not seek concealment of the crime.

  22. Forcible Rape: • …the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. • Includes: • assault or attempt to commit rape by force or threat of force • Excludes: • assault if victim is male • statutory rape (without force) • other sex offenses

  23. Rate of Reported Rape

  24. Forcible Rape One of the most underreported violent crimes. • Reasons for NOT reporting rapes: • The lack of belief in ability of police to apprehend the suspect. • The concern that the victim would receive unsympathetic treatment from police. • The desire to avoid the embarrassment of publicity.

  25. Forcible Rape One of the most underreported violent crimes. • Reasons for NOT reporting rapes: • The fear of reprisal by the rapist. • The fear of additional “victimization” by court proceedings. • The desire to keep family/friends from knowing.

  26. Forcible Rape • Most rapes are committed by acquaintances of victim. • Most rapists appear to be motivated by the need to feel powerful. • July and August are months with highest number of reported rapes. • December, January, and February are months with lowest number of reported rapes.

  27. Date Rape: …is unlawful forced sexual intercourse with a female against her will that occurs within the context of a dating relationship.

  28. Marital Rape: …is forcible sex between people who are legally married to each other.

  29. Same-Sex Rape: …is often called sexual battery, and is not counted as forcible rape by the UCR program.

  30. Rape Shield Laws Most states have laws which protect women from being questioned about their sexual history, unless it is judged to have a direct bearing on the case.

  31. Robbery: …the unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.

  32. Robbery: • Excludes: • threat to expose a victim – for instance as a homosexual or embezzler • force applied after the taking, as it does not constitute robbery • purse snatching

  33. Robbery • Most of those arrested are: • male (90%) • under age 25 (62%) • minorities (56%) • Robbery Rates in 2000 (per 100,000): • large cities – 426.7 • rural areas – 16.7

  34. Aggravated Assault: • …unlawful inflicting of serious injury upon the person of another. • Includes: • Attempted assaults, especially when a deadly weapon is used • The possible use of a gun, knife, or other weapon that could result in serious injury

  35. Aggravated Assault • 56% clearance rate (lower than murder) • summer months highest number reported • Feb, Nov, and Dec lowest number reported • 36%blunt object • 28%hands and feet • 28%guns • 28%knives

  36. Aggravated Assault • Clearance is relatively low because of the uncooperativeness of the victim. • The victim knows assailant. • The assailant is either the husband or the boyfriend. • The victim considers offense a “personal” matter. • The victim believes he “got what he deserved.” • The victim fears revenge if charges are pursued.

  37. Burglary: • …unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. • Types of burglaries: • breaking & entering • unlawful entry without force • attempted forcible entry

  38. Burglary: • 30.2% of all burglaries are unlawful entries. • 63.3% are forcible entries. • 6.5% are attempted forcible entries. • 2 million burglaries reported in 2001. • Daytime burglaries are the most common. • The clearance rate in 2001 was only 12.7%.

  39. Larceny - theft: …unlawful taking or attempted taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another. Motor vehicles are excluded.

  40. Larceny - theft: • Includes (in declining order of frequency): • theft from motor vehicles • shoplifting • theft from buildings • theft of motor vehicle parts and accessories • bicycle thefts • theft from coin operated machines • purse snatching • pocket picking

  41. Larceny - theft • is the most frequently reported crime. • total value of property stolen is around $5.2 billion.

  42. Identity Theft: … a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of information, such as Social Security and driver’s license numbers, to obtain credit, merchandise, and services in the name of the victim.

  43. Motor Vehicle Theft: …the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. A “motor vehicle” is a self-propelled vehicle that runs on land and not on rails.

  44. Motor Vehicle Theft: • Includes: • automobiles • motorcycles • motor scooters • trucks • buses • snowmobiles

  45. Motor Vehicle Theft: • Excludes: • trains • airplanes • bulldozers • most farm equipment • ships • boats • spacecraft

  46. Motor Vehicle Theft • Types: • short-term transportation • long-term transportation • commission of another crime • profit • highly organized professionals • amateur auto strippers who steal for parts

  47. Motor Vehicle Theft Carjacking ...the taking of a motor vehicle directly from the owner by force • Legally, carjacking is a type of robbery, not a motor vehicle theft. • It accounts for just over 1% of all car thefts. • Victims and perpetrators tend to be young African-American males. • About one-half of carjackings committed by gangs or groups. • About 24% of victims sustain injuries.

  48. Motor Vehicle Theft • Car models that have been in production for a few years, without many design changes, stand the greatest risk of theft. • These models are the ones most often taken because their parts are most valued in the secondary market.

  49. Arson: …the burning or attempted burning of property, with or without the intent to defraud.

  50. Arson: … can include a dwelling, house, public building, motor vehicle, aircraft, or personal property of another.