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Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition PowerPoint Presentation
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Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition

Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition

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Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition

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  1. Crime Victims: An Introduction to VictimologySixth Edition By Andrew Karmen Chapter Two: The Rediscovery of Crime Victims

  2. History of Victims • In ancient times, criminal justice focused on victims to seek redress for pain and suffering based upon biblical tenets and English Common Law • Industrialization and urbanization began to diminish the role of victims • Victims lost control of government and judicial process • Ultimately became a civil rather than a criminal matter

  3. History of Victims • History in United States similar • In Colonial America, victims paid for warrants, for sheriff to investigate and to incarcerate • “Bill of Rights” focused on hostilities toward the “state” • Focused on protecting rights of criminals • Violation of laws more important than harm to victims

  4. History of Victims • Focus of prosecutors and courts was to deter crime through punishment, long sentences and execution • Victims lost control of cases in court • Not notified or involved with plea bargaining of their cases in court • VICTIMS WERE VICTIMIZED AGAIN, NOW BY CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

  5. Rediscovery of Victims • Late 50s and early 60s social movement of three groups responsible for the rediscovery of victims: • Law and Order Movement • Civil Rights Movement • Women’s Rights Movement

  6. Rediscovery of Victims • Law and Order Groups • “Get tough on criminals” focused on victims • Lock up criminals quickly and longer • Fewer loopholes for attorneys

  7. Rediscovery of Victims • Women’s Movement—Became very active in anti-rape and anti-battering campaigns • Efforts to break down patriarchal culture tradition to subjugate women • 1972—First anti-rape effort with crisis centers in Berkley CA and Washington D.C. • 1974—First “Safe House” for battered women established in St. Paul Minnesota

  8. Rediscovery of Victims • Other Social Movements • Rights of Children • Senior Citizens—Elder Abuse • Homosexuals • Better training for law enforcement • Expansion of “Equal Protection Under Law” • Media played major role in reviving victim roles • Business sector provided—pepper spray, guns, alarm systems, security services, etc.

  9. Rediscovery of Victims • Politicians enacting legislation named after victims became very popular: • Brady Bill • Amber Alert • Megan’s Law • Jenna’s Law • Kendra’s Law Some of these reforms may prove to be ill-conceived, ineffective and counterproductive

  10. Rediscovery of Victims • The news media played a major role in the rediscovery of victims • More attention given to victims rather than offenders in media coverage • Highly publicized cases gave victims a forum to be heard • Talk show hosts often reflect their unconscious biases

  11. Rediscovery of Victims • Media’s rights to report crimes often conflicts with the victim’s rights for privacy • Solutions to this problem include: • “Shield laws” to protect from needless and unnecessary disclosure of names and addresses and previous victim involvement • Self restraint of reporters and editors • Adoption of a “Code of Ethics” requiring reporters to read a victim their “victim rights” prior to any interviews

  12. Rediscovery of Victims • Commercialization of products and services for victims • Efforts to engage in fear mongering and false advertising to cash in on customer’s fear of becoming a victim • Automobile anti-theft devices (Do they really work?) • Home security systems • Pepper spray • Firearms

  13. Rediscovery of Victims • Victimologists played a major role • Process of rediscovery unfolds through a series of steps and stages: • Stage 1—Calling Attention to an Overlooked Problem • Stage 2—Winning Victories, Implementing Reforms

  14. Rediscovery of Victims • Stage 3—Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to Further Changes • Stage 4—Research and Temporary Resolution of Disputes • Process of Rediscovery Continues: See Box 2.1 Page 40

  15. Key Terms

  16. Key Terms