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Ways of Knowing. Ways of knowing. Ways of Knowing. Language. Ways of Knowing. Reason. Ways of Knowing. Emotion. Ways of Knowing. Perception. Perception. Perception. Perception. Did you notice that one leprechaun, in going from 14 to 15 leprechauns, lost a knee-cap?.

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Ways of Knowing


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    1. Ways of Knowing Ways of knowing

    2. Ways of Knowing Language

    3. Ways of Knowing Reason

    4. Ways of Knowing Emotion

    5. Ways of Knowing Perception

    6. Perception

    7. Perception

    8. Perception

    9. Did you notice that one leprechaun, in going from 14 to 15 leprechauns, lost a knee-cap?

    10. Another guy got the knee-cap, but gave up a foot.

    11. So what is happening, is in going from 14 to 15, the 14 guys each give up a small piece of themselves. If 14 guys give up 1/14th of themselves that equals one whole new guy!

    12. Try rearranging the leprechauns in the order of give-and-take. Start with the knee-cap-loser. Then comes the knee-cap-gainer/foot-loser. Then the chap who gained that foot, and so on. This continues to a little man with crossed arms who acquires hair.

    13. Instead of three pieces, the below image has two pieces - top and bottom. Slide the bottom over, giving the second man the first man's knee. What do we find?

    14. Perception

    15. Perception

    16. Perception

    17. Perception

    18. Perception

    19. Perception

    20. Perception Tractor Perspective Illusion - Optical Illusion Image Gallery #33

    21. Electromagnetic spectrum

    22. Visible light

    23. Visible light λ ≈ 700 nm λ ≈ 420 nm

    24. Ultraviolet waves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm

    25. Ultraviolet waves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm

    26. X-rays λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm

    27. X-rays λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm

    28. Gamma rays λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm

    29. Gamma rays λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm

    30. Infrared waves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    31. Infrared waves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 10-4 - 10-6 m λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    32. Microwaves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10-4 - 10-6 m λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    33. Microwaves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10-4 - 10-6 m λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-2 - 10-3 m λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    34. Radio waves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10-4 - 10-6 m λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-2 - 10-3 m λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    35. Radio waves λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10-4 - 10-6 m λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-2 - 10-3 m λ ≈ 10-1 - 103 m λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    36. Electromagnetic spectrum λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10-4 - 10-6 m λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-2 - 10-3 m λ ≈ 10-1 - 103 m λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    37. Electromagnetic spectrum Long Wavelength Short Wavelength

    38. Electromagnetic spectrum Long Wavelength Short Wavelength High Frequency Low Frequency

    39. What do they all have in common? λ ≈ 700 - 420 nm λ ≈ 10-4 - 10-6 m λ ≈ 10 – 100 nm λ ≈ 1 – 0.01 nm λ ≈ 10-2 - 10-3 m λ ≈ 10-1 - 103 m λ ≈ 10-12 - 10-14 m

    40. What do they all have in common? • They can travel in a vacuum • They travel at 3 x 108m.s-1 in a vacuum (the speed of light) • They are transverse • They are electromagnetic waves (electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each oscillating perpendicularly to the direction of energy transfer)

    41. The Allegory of the Cave by ancient Greek philosopher Plato (429-347BC) Is not the dreamer, sleeping or waking, one who likens dissimilar things, who puts the copy in place of the real object? - Plato

    42. Plato Opened a school on the outskirts of Athens dedicated to the Socratic search for wisdom. Plato's school, then known as the Academy, was the first university in western history and operated from 387 B.C. until A.D. 529, when it was closed by the Roman Emperor Justinian. Plato was both a writer and a teacher. His writings are in the form of dialogues, with Socrates as the principal speaker. This discussion format has become known as Socratic dialogue.

    43. Plato’s theory of Forms The visible world is what surrounds us: what we see, what we hear, what we experience; this visible world is a world of change and uncertainty. The intelligible world is made up of the unchanging products of human reason: anything arising from reason alone, such as abstract definitions or mathematics, makes up this intelligible world, which is the world of reality. The intelligible world contains the eternal "Forms" (in Greek, idea ) of things.

    44. The visible world is the imperfect and changing manifestation in this world of these unchanging forms. For example, the "Form" or "Idea" of a horse is intelligible, abstract, and applies to all horses; this Form never changes, even though horses vary wildly among themselves—the Form of a horse would never change even if every horse in the world were to vanish. An individual horse is a physical, changing object that can easily cease to be a horse (if, for instance, it's dropped out of a fifty story building); the Form of a horse, or "horseness," never changes. As a physical object, a horse only makes sense in that it can be referred to the "Form" or "Idea" of horseness. Plato realizes that the general run of humankind can think, and speak, etc., without (so far as they acknowledge) any awareness of his realm of Forms.

    45. The Allegory of the Cavefrom Book VII of  The Republic [Socrates:]  … let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or unenlightened: --Behold! human beings living in a underground den, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the den; here they have been from their childhood, and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets. [Glaucon:]  I see.

    46. And do you see, I said, men passing along the wall carrying all sorts of vessels, and statues and figures of animals made of wood and stone and various materials, which appear over the wall? Some of them are talking, others silent. You have shown me a strange image, and they are strange prisoners. Like ourselves, I replied; and they see only their own shadows, or the shadows of one another, which the fire throws on the opposite wall of the cave? True, he said; how could they see anything but the shadows if they were never allowed to move their heads? And of the objects which are being carried in like manner they would only see the shadows? Yes, he said. And if they were able to converse with one another, would they not suppose that they were naming what was actually before them? … No question, he replied. To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images. That is certain.

    47. How does Plato’s thought experiment work? Sketch your own interpretation of the cave • In plan • Side-on • or • With perspective

    48. In The Allegory of the Cave, Plato likens people untutored in the Theory of Forms to prisoners chained in a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave. Behind them burns a fire.  Between the fire and the prisoners there is a parapet, along which puppeteers can walk. The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. The prisoners are unable to see these puppets, the real objects, that pass behind them. What the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see.

    49. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYKNAdbhQ-w&feature=related

    50. Such prisoners would mistake appearance for reality. They would think the things they see on the wall (the shadows) were real; they would know nothing of the real causes of the shadows. So when the prisoners talk, what are they talking about? If an object (a book, let us say) is carried past behind them, and it casts a shadow on the wall, and a prisoner says “I see a book,” what is he talking about? He thinks he is talking about a book, but he is really talking about a shadow. But he uses the word “book.” What does that refer to? Plato’s answer was: “And if they could talk to one another, don’t you think they’d suppose that the names they used applied to the things they see passing before them?” Couldn’t it be the same for us, fooled by our senses into thinking that we perceived reality, when in truth it is just a shadow of the intelligible world?