China 20th Century China Mr. Napier and Mr. Newhall
Standards • SS7H3 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southern and Eastern Asia leading to the 21st century. d. Describe the impact of communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and Tiananmen Square.
Homework due 3-24 Pages 659-664 Questions 2, 3, 5, and 6
Huang He, Mekong, Yangtze, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Yellow Sea, Gobi, Taklimakan, Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam
What do we know? • How many people live in China? • What kind of government? • What type of economy? • Where do people live? • Environmental issues? • Major geographic features? • Key border nations?
The new Republic of China • Nationalist Party ended Chinese Dynasty rule with the defeat of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. • Sun Yixian 1st President (1912-1925) • Sought to end foreign control in China’s affairs • Unstable times
Review/Preview • Country between Russia and • Land near Isreal where Palentinians live? • Gulf in Middle East with lots of oil? • Separation of races in South Africa? • Country with six counties still controlled by a foreign power? • Islam has two sects, Sunni and ______________? • Muslim nation near Australia with many people? • Colonial nation which controlled Congo? • Mountains in the center of Europe? • Holy city of Islam? • Arabs are an ____________ group.
Chiang Kai-shek • Second leader of the Republic of China • 1929 formed Nationalist Republic of China • Civil War with Mao Zedong and Communist Party
Mao Zedong As a Young Revolutionary • 1921- One of the founders of Chinese Communist Party • Led the Long March (1934-1935) • 1949 Defeated Nationalist- created People’s Republic of China • Chairman of the Communist Party (1949-1976) Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong-Man of the People The Three Rules of Military Discipline Eight Points for Attention Be polite when speaking Be honest when buying and selling Return all borrowed articles Pay compensation for everything damaged Do not hit or swear at others Do not damage crops Do not harass females Do not mistreat prisoners ● prompt obedience to orders, ● No confiscation of peasant property, and ● Prompt delivery directly to authorities of all items confiscated from landlords.
The Long March • 6,000 mile trek of the Red Army of the Chinese Communist (chased by the Nationalist Party). • Communist relocated from Southeast to Northwest. • They crossed 18 mountain ranges and 24 rivers. • Marched without supplies- foraging and gathering • 100,000 men began • the trek; only 8,000 • arrived 1 yr later in Yan’an.
The Long March… Mount Jiajin- 1st mountain on Long March
Time Line China 1929 Chiang Kai-shek forms nationalist republic 1934-35 Long March of Communists 1939-45 World War II Japan Invades China Communists and Nationalist fight together 1945-49 Civil War won by Communists 1949-76 Mao leads People’s Republic
Nationalist and Communist are side by side during WWII. The end of World War and the beginning of …CIVIL WAR! Communist Revolution 1946-1949 Chinese Red Army (Communist ) takes power from Nationalist Shanghai- 1949
How did they win? • Mao won support of peasants – land • Mao won support of women • Mao’s army used guerilla war tactics • Many saw the Nationalist government as corrupt • Many felt that the Nationalists allowed foreigners to dominate China.
The People’s Republic of China • Mao Zedong announces formation of PRC on October 1, 1949 in front of the Forbidden City in Beijing • Communist rule in China begins • Wanted collective (Command Economy) ownership in agriculture and industry
Great Leap Forward, 1958 ● 5 year plan to increase agriculture and industry ● Established Collectives ● Groups of people who live and work together to achieve production quotas ● Property held and controlled by government ● Ended after 2 years- failure ● Farmers missed owning land, produced less, no motivation to work hard ● Poor crops due to bad weather ● Famine a result
Communist China Under Mao ● IndustrializedChina ● Increased literacy ● Class privileges ended ● One-party dictatorship ● Denied people basic rights and freedoms • Overtook Inner Mongolia & Tibet
Great Cultural Revolution 1966 ● Renew revolutionary spirit and established an equal society ● Mao wanted to put “intellectuals” in their place- students encouraged to leave school and fight anything that promoted classes ● Red Guards were students who attacked professors, government officials, factory managers- some were jailed, some killed ● Fear of Capitalism- private ownership *Result was chaos* Mao’s Attempt to take back Absolute power!
Propaganda Posters What do you see…
Deng Xiaoping • Deng Xiaoping becomes new leader of China • Opens markets to limited Capitalism. Market Command Mao Deng
Tiananmen Square, 1989 • Located in the of the city of Beijing. • Size: 109 acres. • Is the location of several important Monuments and Buildings.
Tiananmen Square, 1989 • Thousands of students and workers protested for democratic reforms and corruption in the government. • Occupied square for 7 weeks.
Tiananmen Square, 1989 Democracy—Our Common Ideal!
Tiananmen Square, 1989 Goddess of Democracy
Tiananmen Square Protest Ends… • Government used military force to end demonstration. • 100’s were killed, 10,000 injured and 1,000’s “arrested” Goddess of Democracy destroyed by soldiers
Charlie Cole Jeff Widener Type 59 Chinese Tank 72000 lbs 8.5 feet tall 20 feet long/11 feet wide Stuart Franklin Arthur Tsang Hin Wah Terril Jones
Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Massacre: The People’s Army Moves In Student leaders are arrested
Tiananmen Square, 1989 No fighting but no peace either.
Warm Up and Review • First leader of communist China? • Goal of Great Leap Forward? • Amount of private ownership under Mao? • Enemy of the Cultural Revolution? • Families of rulers in China? • One who believes nation should be independent? • A command economy is a _________ economy. • Goal of protesters in Tiananmen Square? • Monarch in Japan?
Korean War • North Korea invades South in 1950. • United Nations acts with U.S. • U.S. soldiers come from Japan occupation. • China intervenes when U.S. forces neared the border • Armistice signed in 1952 after 33,000+ U.S. deaths
Vietnam War • French driven out by Nationalists led by Ho Chi Minh • Vietnam divided between communist and free. • Government of South Vietnam supported by U.S. • North Vietnam supported by Soviet Union • U.S. sends in military advisors to help south defeat communist infiltration • Gradually, U.S. raises troops to more than 500,000 • U.S. deaths reach more than 200/week • College students protest war at home • Media (color TV) shows military action and Tet Offensive – Communists still strong • U.S. gradually withdraws troops • Vietnam falls to communists in 1975.
Shinto • Japanese religion • “way of the Gods” • Supernatural beings, called Kami, live in all objects and forces of nature. • No book but deeply rooted in Japanese culture. • Winds, rain, mountains, trees fertility are gods. • Shrines are focus.
Confucianism The fundamental concern of the Confucian tradition is learning to be human • Philosophy more than religion • Moral teachings • Humanism – Focus on man and how you should act in society
Japan • Economic success • Group/society more important than individual • Parliamentary Democracy with Emperor • High literacy (99%) results in high standard of living. • Avoided European control. • Desire for natural resources caused WW II. • Rebuilt by United States after World War II. • Life expectancy is 83! • Buddhist and Shinto traditions. • Homogeneous society
Asian Images “Forget injuries, never forget kindnesses.”
Create a children’s story • Your story should include at least 6 pages and illustrations • Mao Zedong • The Long March • The Great Leap Forward • The Cultural Revolution • Tiananmen Square • China Today