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Educational Strategies, Mass Media, and Evaluation. Chapter 12. Key Terms. Teaching Techniques – means in which educational objectives are achieved to create meaningful learning experiences

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Key terms
Key Terms

  • Teaching Techniques – means in which educational objectives are achieved to create meaningful learning experiences

  • Action-oriented Techniques – strategies such as debates, which allow individuals to exercise a level of control of what is learned

  • Formative Evaluation – systematic assessment occurring before or during a learning activity to improve the educational process

  • Summative Evaluation – systematic assessment at the conclusion of a course, program, or learning activity

Keys to success
Keys to Success

  • When giving a presentation, there are many factors that may influence your selection of learning strategy – such as group size, location, number of meetings, resources, etc.

  • Emphasis should be placed on engaging your audience by building an environment conducive to hearing your message

  • Preferable to provide active learning opportunities

Teaching techniques
Teaching Techniques




Visual Aids

Action-Oriented Techniques

Technology-Based Techniques


  • Lecturing is oldest form of communicating information to groups and is used in wide variety of settings

  • Delivering a lecture with confidence and animation will generate enthusiasm

  • Public speaking skills are based on:

    • Solid foundation of knowledge

    • Enthusiasm for the subject matter

    • Technique development


Presentation learning curve
Presentation Learning Curve

  • A-B (beginning) – curiosity enhances attention and retention

  • B-C (middle) – retention will drop

  • C-D (end) – a summary warning will encourage upward swing in retention


  • Definition: A goal-oriented interaction or conversation between individuals on a particular topic

  • Can lead to critical thinking, skill development, problem solving and articulation of perceptions and opinions

  • Good discussions stem from careful use of questions


  • Demonstrations combine telling and showing

  • Visually illustrate procedures

  • Show techniques

  • Provide symbolic representations

  • Could insert a demonstration into a lecture

Visual aids
Visual Aids

  • “A picture is worth a thousand words”

  • Provide clarity and add vitality to presentation

  • “Seeing is believing” – visual aids can enhance presenters credibility

  • Promote learning by improving memory through visual stimulation

  • Seeing enhances retention

Visual aids1
Visual Aids

  • Blackboard or whiteboard

  • Overhead transparency projector

  • Flipcharts

  • PowerPoint presentations

  • Videotapes (CD’s, DVD’s, YouTube videos)

Martin Luther King Jr “I have a dream” speech – Exercise 12.2

Action oriented techniques
Action-Oriented Techniques

  • Encourage learners to take responsibility for their own learning by exercising a level of control over what is learned

  • Participation and interaction stimulate interest

  • Examples:

    • Debate

    • Role-playing

    • Educational games

    • Simulations

    • Laboratories

Technology based techniques
Technology-Based Techniques

  • As a result of technology there is less need to memorize and a greater need to guide in finding and evaluating credible resources

  • At no other time in history has there been such easy access to so much information

  • Examples:Wii eBooks

    Computers Twitter

    Blogs Cell Phones Facebook Text Messaging

    Instant Messaging YouTube

    Video Conferencing Social Media

Learning domains and strategies
Learning Domains and Strategies

  • Advantages to using a variety of educational strategies as opposed to only one method

  • A variety will better accommodate diverse learning styles

  • Address all 3 learning domains:

    • Cognitive – mental skills, knowledge

    • Affective – feelings or emotions, attitude

    • Psychomotor – manual or physical skills

Develop appealing and informative mass media materials
Develop Appealing and Informative Mass Media Materials

  • Mass media can rapidly deliver persuasive and powerful health messages to a large audience

  • May involve sponsors

  • Keep in mind that nutrition information from commercial advertising can be heavily biased with primary goal of making a profit

  • School curriculum has started to include guidance for analyzing, evaluating, and creating media

Develop appealing and informative mass media materials1
Develop Appealing and Informative Mass Media Materials

  • Health campaigns can include:

    • Social media venues

    • Websites

    • Television and radio PSA’s

    • Public service transit ads

    • Billboards

    • Posters

    • Pamphlets

    • Special events

Exercise 12 4
Exercise 12.4

New York City’s “Pouring on the Pounds Program”

Man Eating Sugar Packets

Man Drinks Fat

Print materials
Print Materials

  • Good writing skills can enhance your credibility and visibility

  • RD may have opportunity to write for newspaper, magazines, websites, blogs

  • Also, pamphlets, fact sheets, direct mailings, brochures

  • “ICIC” = Interesting, Clear, Informative, Concise

4 steps for icic communication
4 Steps for ICIC Communication

  • Step 1: ASOAP Analysis

    • Audience

      • What your target audience needs to know and wants to know

    • Subject

      • Do thorough research of subject matter

    • Objective

      • What you are trying to accomplish

    • Angle

      • What are motivating factors for your target audience

    • Publication

      • Printed materials the audience can understand, accept and use

4 steps for icic communication1
4 Steps for ICIC Communication

  • Step 2: Outline and Collect Resources

    • An outline is a roadmap for writing your paper

    • Provides guidance for staying on target and insuring that you do not omit important information

    • May need to adjust – it is not “written in stone”

  • Step 3: Write the First Draft

    • Do not expect your first writing to be a final copy

    • See Table 12.10 for factors to consider for effective writing

Icic communication
ICIC Communication

  • Step 4: Polish Your Paper

    • Ask colleagues to evaluate the document for:

      • Spelling, grammar, punctuation

      • Appropriate dating, numbering, consistency

      • Visual appeal

      • Effectiveness and consistency of text enhancements

      • Odd breaks or anything that reduces clarity

    • Ask individuals from your target audience to review for comprehension, appropriateness, readability

Application of emotion based approach
Application of Emotion-Based Approach

  • Advertising and marketing research shows that people are more likely to make behavioral decisions in response to emotions, rather than rational thought

  • WIC developed educational materials and counseling approaches geared toward parent-identified emotional “pulse-points”

    • Including colorful photo with an emotion-based message, personal testimonials, cooking and snacking tips, and recipes

Conducting evaluations
Conducting Evaluations

  • Evaluations are needed to determine the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions

  • Evaluations may be needed to provide information regarding distribution of resources, altering program delivery, continuing a program, or meeting funding requirements

Conducting evaluations1
Conducting Evaluations

  • Variety of assessment procedures to select from:

    • Focus groups

    • Questionnaires

    • Interviews

    • Biochemical analysis

    • Nutrient intake assessmentsof food records

Conducting evaluations2
Conducting Evaluations

  • Instruments should meet validity and reliability standards

    • Validity – addresses the question of whether an instrument truly measures what it intends to measure

      • Ex/ validity of food frequency questionnaire needs to be established if purpose is to measure intake of Vitamin A over specific time frame

    • Reliability – refers to the question of whether the outcomes of the evaluation are reproducible, repeatable, or consistent

      • Ex/ reliability of skinfold evaluations is established when similar measurements are obtained

Conducting evaluations3
Conducting Evaluations

  • Formative Evaluations – often involve qualitative data collection via observation, interviewing, and structured discussions

    • May be conducted before a program begins to assess certain design elements

    • Provides baseline to measure impact of intervention

    • Ex/ a brochure may be evaluated for accuracy, appropriateness, and readability

Conducting evaluations4
Conducting Evaluations

  • Summative Evaluations – often include quantitative evaluation and are performed to assess outcomes

    • May include performance tests, observations, surveys, biochemical and anthropometric measurements and self-assessment tools

    • Performed at conclusion of program or learning activity

    • These evaluations can help determine whether a nutrition education program actually accomplished what it was designed to do