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Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War

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Spanish-American War

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  1. Spanish-American War American Neo-Imperialism And American Foreign Policy

  2. Platt Amendment (1901) U.S.-Cuban Agreement: Never to sign a treaty with foreign power that impairs independence. Never to build up an excessive public debt To permit the U.S. to intervene in Cuba’s affairs to preserve its independence and maintain law and order To allow the U.S. to maintain naval bases in Cuba, including one at Guantanamo Bay.

  3. Open Door Policy with China • John Hay – spheres of influence • Boxer Rebellion • Hay’s Second Note: • Preserve China’s territorial integrity • Safeguard “equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire.”

  4. Panama Canal • Rationale for Canal: • Revolution in Panama – Columbian Influence • U.S. connection from Pacific to Atlantic • Military • Imperialism and trade / spheres of influence • Future income from use • Limit availability and control/persuade other nations for use agreements.

  5. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) • Great Britain agreed to abrogate an earlier 1850 agreement in which a Central American canal would be U.S. and British. Abrogate = cancel • U.S. can now build canal without British control.

  6. Building the Canal • Started in 1904 – completed in 1914 • George Goethals and Dr.William Gorgas • Goethals: Chief engineer and canal zone administrator • Gorgas: Minimizes yellow fever do to mosquitoes

  7. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • Latin American financial debt to Europe. • 1902 – British war ships dispatched to Venezuela for repayment of debt. • 1904 – Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: European repayment of debt and land disputes. • Dec. 1904 – U.S. will intervene instead. (Roosevelt Corollary) U.S. would occupy major ports collection of taxes to satisfy foreign debt. • 1912 - Lodge Corollary

  8. Roosevelt Corollary in Use • Over the next 20yrs: • Haiti • Honduras • Dominican Republic • Nicaragua • Long-term result is U.S. negative (resented) relationship with Latin America.

  9. Presidency in Trouble • Latin America angered at T.R.’s role in Panama Revolution. • Teller Amendment – U.S. limited imperialists • Philippine and Cuban Annexation are contended and quite different. The U.S. has an Interventionist motive. • In 1921, U.S. will pay Columbia $25 million for its loss of Panama.

  10. Taft’s message to Congress • On December 3, 1912, President Taft looked back at the foreign policy followed by the United States during his administration and noted: "The diplomacy of the present administration has sought to respond to modern ideas of commercial intercourse. This policy has been characterized as substituting dollars for bullets. It is one that appeals alike to idealistic humanitarian sentiments, to the dictates of sound policy and strategy, and to legitimate commercial aims."

  11. Root–Takahira Agreement • An agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan negotiated between U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador to the United States Takahira. • Signed in November of 1908, the agreement consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial integrity of China. (i.e. the "Open Door Policy" as proposed by John Hay), maintenance of free trade and equal commercial opportunities.

  12. Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy • Wilson abandoned the imperialist policy and brought to the White House a new way of looking at America's relations with the outside world. • The U.S. was the most politically enlightened nation under God, he felt that all peoples throughout the world had the right to: self-determination– that the people in every country should have the right to choose their own governments. • Secretary of State Bryan, felt that it was America's duty to protect democracy and free peoples in other countries rather than to spread it throughout the globe.

  13. Progressive Imperialism • Big Stick Policy • “speak softly and carry a big stick” • Strong Military but use diplomacy • Dollar Diplomacy • Using foreign aid to ($) manipulate other nations. - Builds dependency • Moral Diplomacy • Right past wrongs. • US to expand the Constitution and Progressive Reforms.