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The 1 st 5 Presidents

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  1. The 1st 5 Presidents A New Nation is formed

  2. 1. George Washington- 1789-1796 • Precedents: • Whiskey Rebellion: • Jay’s Treaty:

  3. George Washington 1789-1796 (John Adams- VP) Set precedents- an act for others to follow (2 terms, cabinet, farewell address, etc.- became part of an unwritten constitution) Cabinet: advisors to help the President make important decisions Judiciary Act 1789- set up the Supreme Court The President’s Cabinet: Washington appointed four cabinet members: Henry Knox- Secretary of War Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State Edmund Randolph- Attorney General John Adams- Secretary of the Treasury

  4. Hamilton and the National Debt • Hamilton had to come up with a way to pay off nation’s debt (war, supplies, army) • Whiskey Tax: excise tax put on the liquor • Caused frontiersmen to rebel…Washington forced to march in and show power of executive gov’t • Bonds- issue to pay debt • South has little debt • If the capital was moved south, they would agree to bonds • 1790 bonds were issued and plans to move capital began

  5. Strengthening the Economy Establish the Bank of the United States (collect taxes, print money) Give loans to farmers (help expand) Establish tariffs (taxes on foreign goods) • Arguments For National Bank: • Would build confidence in the new nation • Would raise $$ • Would free up state $$ • Arguments Against National Bank: • Constitution did not specifically say “build a bank” (Strict Constructionist) • Southern states paid debts already • People resented new taxes and tariffs

  6. Foreign Policy- Neutrality • 1789- The French Revolution (fighting for liberty) • Jefferson (and most American’s) supported this after the French support Americans in their revolution • 1793- France at war with Britain, Spain, and Holland • Washington issued a Declaration of Neutrality • Many wanted to continue trading with British AND French

  7. American soldiers fought with French on their ships against the British 250 American ships were seized by the British British gave weapons to Native Americans in the West Washington sent John Jay to England to come to an agreement

  8. Jay’s Treaty Stop seizing ships Most Favored Nation Status (w/ Britain) Stop arming Natives French

  9. Washington’s Farewell Address Remain Neutral No political parties (causes sectionalism)

  10. Election of 1796 John Adams VS Thomas Jefferson

  11. 2. John Adams 1797-1801 • XYZ Affair: • Alien & Sedition Acts: • Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions:

  12. John Adams (Federalist)- 2nd President 1797-1801 • XYZ AFFAIR: • French angry over Jay’s Treaty • Continued to seize ships • Went to France to try to compromise • XYZ (French diplomats) tried to bribe American officials • Americans became outraged with the French • Adam’s and the Federalists took advantage of public opinion and began to build a Navy

  13. Alien & Sedition Acts • Distrust with Foreigners in general • Needed to take votes away from Democratic-Republicans (who were seen as French-sympathizers) • Adams issued the Alien & Sedition Acts: • Increased requirements from 5 to 14 years for citizenship • Targeted French as anti-American; could be fined & jailed • Restricted newspapers from writing scandalous reports; could be fined & jailed for treason Is this CONSTITUTIONAL?!?!?

  14. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Thomas Jefferson (VP) and James Madison wrote in secret • Resolutions came out rejecting the Alien and Sedition Acts • declared that states had right to refuse federal laws they feel are unjust and declare them unconstitutional (nullification) • Led to debate of Federal Power VS States Rights

  15. 3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) • Presidential Goals: • Strict Constructionist: • Louisiana Purchase: • Embargo Act:

  16. Election of 1800 • John Adams (federalist) • Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr (dem.-reps.) • Dead-lock between the Democratic-Republican candidates- went to House of Representatives • Alexander Hamilton (Federalist) swayed votes to Jefferson

  17. Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)- 3rd President 1801-1809 • Presidential Goals: • Simplify presidency • Eliminate excise tax • Reduce size of army • Reduce size of cabinet

  18. UNTIL…..

  19. Louisiana Purchase Doubled size of U.S. Unconstitutional Gained control of Mississippi River

  20. Chesapeake-Leopard “Affair” • June 21, 1807- Norfolk, VA • British captain fired on the USS Chesapeake • 3 dead, 18 wounded • Jefferson’s Response: Embargo Act

  21. The EMBARGO Act (1807) The “OGRABME” Turtle

  22. Jefferson responds with the Embargo Act hat to do! I know what to do! If we don’t allow American ships to trade with anyone, then we can get attacked! American Merchant President Thomas Jefferson True, but that’s not what I had in mind! I have a better idea! Let’s go to war!

  23. 4. James Madison (1809-1817) • Marbury v. Madison: • American System: • War of 1812:

  24. Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established Judicial Review

  25. Presidential Election of 1808

  26. James Madison Supported the American System (created by Henry Clay): Established a protective tariff Reestablished the National Bank (weakened under Jefferson) Sponsored the development of transportation systems, as well as other internal developments * The American System = Neutrality

  27. The American System would help: • The North produce more manufactured goods • South and West raise most of the grains, meat, and cotton needed in the North NORTH = make goods SOUTH = RAISE CROPS

  28. The Election of 1812

  29. “War Hawks” Henry Clay (KY) John C. Calhoun (SC)

  30. War of 1812… the second American Revolution Causes: British impressment of US sailors Conflict over trade British STILL arming Native Americans Effects: Foreign countries earn respect for US NATIONALISM US manufacturing increases Native American resistance declines

  31. Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814

  32. 4. James Monroe (1817-1825) • Era of Good Feelings: • Monroe Doctrine:

  33. James Monroe- (Democratic-Republican)- 5th President 1817-1825

  34. Era of Good Feelings

  35. In 1823- The Monroe Doctrine was issued. It became the foundation of US foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere… American is CHARGED after winning the War of 1812…. Big Pants are on…

  36. …an end to European colonization in the Western Hemisphere. …no intervention by Europe in existing nations in the Western hemisphere A declaration that European interference was “dangerous to our peace and safety” …a promise of noninterference by the United States in European affairs and European colonies