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  1. Presidents 1-44 Review By: Victoria Vansant, Mairéad Pettit, and Amelia Ritchie

  2. #1 George Washington First term:1789-1793; Second term: 1793-1797 • VP: John Adams (1789-1797) • Federalist • Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War • Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 • Signed Jay’s Treaty (gave up US’s right to neutrality on the seas) • Suppressed Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 (he sent troops to make Pennsylvania farmers pay their taxes)

  3. #2 John Adams Term: 1797-1801 • VP: Thomas Jefferson (1797-1801) • Jefferson and Adams ran against each other in the election. Adams got the most votes and Jefferson got the 2nd most votes. • Federalist • XYZ Affair (French Minister Talleyrand sent 3 men to the US to get money to resolve things) • Alien and Sedition Acts (limited immigration and free speech because there was fear about a war with France) • “midnight appointments” (Adam’s last night in office) • Marbury v. Madison: Judicial Review

  4. #3 Thomas Jefferson First term: 1801-1805; Second term: 1805-1809 • VP: Aaron Burr (1801-1805); George Clinton (1805-1809) • Anti-Federalist • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (Jefferson and Madison argued that Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional) • Louisiana Purchase • Sent Lewis and Clark on their expedition • Embargo Act of 1807 • US stopped foreign trade • Britain and France were at war • It hurt the US most

  5. #4 James Madison First term: 1809-1813; Second term: 1813-1817 • VP: George Clinton (1809-(died in 1812)); Elbridge Gerry(1812-(died in 1814)) • Father of the Constitution • Federalist Papers (written with John Jay & Alexander Hamilton to sway the people to ratify the new Constitution) • President during the War of 1812 • Non-Intercourse Act(NO trade with France or Great Britain) • Macon’s Bill No. 2 (whichever country stopped harassing US ships first would be favored)

  6. #5 James Monroe First term: 1817-1821; Second term: 1821-1825 • VP: Daniel D. Tompkins (1817-1825) • Anti-Federalist • “Era of Good Feelings” • US experienced first economic depression • Adams-Onis Treaty (1819): Spain gave Florida to US after Andrew Jackson invaded Florida against orders • Missouri Compromise (1820): admitted Missouri into the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state • Monroe Doctrine (1823): a warning to European powers about expansion and intervention into the western hemisphere

  7. #6 John Q. Adams Term: 1825-1829 • VP: John C. Calhoun (1825-1829) • 1st Minority President • Republican • Corrupt Bargain between him and Henry Clay • Supported internal improvements • Cumberland Road/National Road-1st major improved highways in the US • “tariff of abominations” to protect domestic manufacturing

  8. #7 Andrew Jackson First term: 1829-1833; Second term: 1833-1837 • VP: John C. Calhoun (1829-(resigned in 1832)); Martin Van Buren (1833-1837) • “Old Hickory” was Democratic-Republican • Kitchen Cabinet: his group of advisors • Spoils System: rewarding political supporters with public office • Nullification Crisis: South Carolina felt that they could ignore or nullify a tariff issued by the government • 1833 a compromise tariff was issued • BANK WAR; he vetoed Second Bank of the US • Jackson believed it favored the wealthy • Specie Circular: required land purchases to be in gold or silver

  9. Andrew Jackson Cont… • Indian Removal Act (1830): moved all Indian tribes west of the Mississippi • Mainly affected the Five Civilized Tribes • Trail of Tears: Indians died on the march

  10. #8 Martin Van Buren Term: 1837-1841 • VP: Richard M. Johnson (1837-1841) • Panic of 1837 • rampant speculation and get-rich-quickism • Aroostook War (1839) • Conflict on the Maine/Canadian(British controlled) border where there was no boundary • Settled before any real fighting began • Alamo • US citizens kept moving to Texas with their slaves • Mexico emancipated all their slaves in 1830 • Texas wanted statehood after gaining independence from Spain • If admitted it would be slave state so the North opposed

  11. #9 William Harrison Term: 1841 • VP: John Tyler (1841) (He became president after Harrison died) • He was only president for 32 days before dying of pneumonia (probably contracted while giving inaugural speech)

  12. #10 John Tyler Term: 1841-1845 • VP: none • His entire cabinet, except his Secretary of State Daniel Webster, resigned • Democrat • Ended the Aroostook War by setting a boundary between Maine and Canada and all the way west to Oregon • NO to Bank of the United States • Henry Clay the “Great Compromiser” and leader of the Whigs wanted a new US Bank • He signed a resolution that annexed Texas in 1845

  13. #11 James Polk Term: 1845-1849 • VP: George M. Dallas (1845-1849) • Oregon territory • Boundary set at 49th parallel • US received Washington & Oregon • Great Britain got Vancouver • Mexican-American War lasted 1846-1848 • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848): ended war with Mexico & fixed the border at the Rio Grande • US gained CA & NV • Manifest Destiny: US was destined by God to spread empire across North America (EXPANSIONISM)

  14. #12 Zachary Taylor Term: 1849-1850 (He died 16 months into office in 1850) • VP: Millard Fillmore (1849-1850) ( He became president following Taylor’s death) • Mexican-American war hero; Whig • Free Soil Party: anti-slavery men in the North (distrusted Taylor) • No slavery into new territories • California Gold Rush (1849) • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: (in affect until 1901) • US & Britain agreed that canals across Central America were to be neutral & no colonization

  15. #13 Millard Fillmore Term: 1850-1853 (became president after Taylor died) • VP: none • Know-Nothing Party • Compromise of 1850- helped delay Civil War, but neither North or South liked it • NO more slave trading in D.C • Fugitive Slave Act: required federal government to help return runaway slaves • CA admitted a FREE state • Utah & New Mexico opened to popular sovereignty • Texas compensated for giving up claims in the west

  16. #14 Franklin Pierce Term: 1853-1857 • VP: William R. D. King (died in 1853) • Democrat (Whigs had become divided) • Gadsden Purchase (1853): US bought Arizona and New Mexico • Kansas-Nebraska Act(1854): popular sovereignty in these territories • Ostend Manifesto (1854): (published in NY Herald): US would take aggressive action if Spain was not willing to give up Cuba • Bleeding Kansas(1856): Congressman Brooks beat Senator Charles Sumner with his cane • Sumner was an abolitionist who had insulted southerners

  17. #15 James Buchanan Term: 1857-1861 • VP: John C. Breckinridge (1857-1861) • Democrat • Dred Scott v. Stanford: slaves were considered property • Buchanan believed this gave slavery constitutionality • Panic of 1857: caused by gold-fueled inflation, overspeculation, and excess grain production • Tariff of 1857: lowered duties on imports in response to high Treasury surplus & pressure from Southern farmers • Confederate States of America formed in 1860 • A result of Lincoln’s election

  18. # 16 Abraham Lincoln • President from 1861-1865 • VP: Hannibal Hamlin (1861-1865); Andrew Johnson (1865) • Republican • Lincoln-Douglas Debates • 7 debates between Lincoln and Stephen Douglas • Disagreed over slavery • Civil War • Emancipated slaves • Suspended civil liberties during the war • Habeas Corpus • Admitted West Virginia and Nevada to the Union • Assassinated April 1895 • John Wilkes Booth

  19. # 17 Andrew Johnson • President from1865-1869 • VP: NONE • Democrat • Became President after Lincoln’s death • Reconstruction • Continued with Lincoln’s vision • Very lenient on southerners • Wanted to allowed Southerners to swear an oath of allegiance to become citizens again • Clashed with those who wanted “Radical Reconstruction” • Vetoed many Reconstruction bills, such as the Civil Rights Bill • First President to be impeached while in office • Senate voted to not remove him from office by one vote

  20. # 18 Ulysses S. Grant • President from 1869-1877 • VP: Schuyler Colfax (1869-1873); Henry Wilson (1873-1875); NONE (1875-1877) • Republican • Military hero in Civil War • Accepted Lee’s surrender at Appomattox • Continued Radical Reconstruction • Passed the Civil Rights Act • 15th Amendment—granted blacks the right to vote

  21. Scandals • Black Friday • Jay Gould and James Fisk tried to corner the gold market, drove up price of gold • Credit Mobilier • Company sold stocks cheaply to Congress members in order to cover up stealing money from Union Pacific Railroad • Whiskey Ring • Distillers and federal agents were keeping the money from liquor taxes • Was still elected for a second term

  22. # 19 Rutherford B. Hayes • President from 1877-1881 • VP: William A. Wheeler • Republican • Lost popular vote, but won electoral vote due to invalid ballots • Compromise of 1877 • Ended military occupation of the south • Reformed Civil Service appointments • Attempted to end the spoils system • Returned country to the gold standard • Removed greenbacks from circulation

  23. # 20 James Garfield • President in 1881 • VP: Chester A. Arthur • Republican • Only President for about 6 months, before he was shot and died of blood poisoning • Main action was continuing investigations into mail route contracts despite the implication of members of his own party

  24. # 21 Chester Arthur • President from 1881-1885 • VP: NONE • Republican • President because of Garfield’s death • Chinese Exclusion Act • Halted Chinese immigration for 10 years • Pendleton Civil Service Act • Ended the spoils system in the American Government

  25. # 22, 24 Grover Cleveland • President from 1885-1889, and 1893-1897 • VP: Adlai E. Stevenson (1893-1897); Thomas A. Hendricks (1885); NONE (1885-1889) • Democrat • Presidential Succession Act • Set up the succession through the President’s cabinet • Interstate Commerce Act • Regulated interstate railroad rates • First Federal regulatory agency • Dawes Severalty Act • Granted citizenship and reservation land to native Americans willing to give up tribal allegiance

  26. Withdrew a treaty annexing Hawai’i • Panic of 1893 • Government did not help as they did not think they had constitutional power • Repealed Sherman Silver Purchase Act • Silver was purchased by government and was redeemable in notes for either silver or gold • Pullman Strike • Ordered Federal troops to stop the strike and arrest Eugene Debs

  27. # 23 Benjamin Harrison • President from 1889-1893 • VP: Levi P. Morton • Republican • Ran against Cleveland • Dependent and Disability Pensions Act • Provided money for veterans and their families if disabled while in service • Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Tried to stop the abuse of trusts and monopolies • Sherman Silver Purchase Act • Silver was purchased by government and was redeemable in notes for either silver or gold

  28. # 25 William McKinley • President from 1897-1901 • VP: Garret A. Hobart (1897-1899); NONE (1899-1901); Theodore Roosevelt (1901) • Republican • Opposed William Jennings Bryan • “Cross of Gold” speech • Annexed Hawai’i • Spanish-American War • US Battleship Maine explosion • Open Door Policy • Equal trade in China • Gold Standard Act • Officially placed US on gold standard • Assassinated in 1901

  29. # 26 Theodore Roosevelt • President from 1901-1909 • VP: NONE (1901-1905); Charles W. Fairbanks (1905-1909) • Republican; Progressive(Bull Moose) • Panama Canal • Roosevelt Corollary • It was the responsibility of America to respond with force to enforce the Monroe Doctrine • “Big Stick” Diplomacy • Trust-Buster • “Square Deal” • Meat Inspection and the Pure Food and Drug Act • Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle • Conservation Efforts • Gentleman’s Agreement • Slowed immigration of laborers from Japan to US

  30. # 27 William Howard Taft • President from 1909-1913 • VP: James S. Sherman (1909-1912); NONE (1912-1913) • Republican • Opposed William Jennings Bryan • Campaign focused more on personality than issues • Continued Roosevelt’s “trust-busting” • Brought down Standard Oil • Dollar Diplomacy • The use of the military and diplomacy to promote US business interests • Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act • Lowered tariff rates

  31. # 28 Woodrow Wilson • President from 1913-1921 • VP: Thomas R. Marshall • Democrat • Opposed by both William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt (Bull Moose) • Split Republican party, Easy win for Wilson • Was an isolationist • Major campaign promise, “He Kept Us Out Of The War” • Underwood Tariff • Lowered rates • Also created the first federal income tax

  32. Federal Reserve Act • Federal Reserve system to help deal with economic highs and lows • Clayton Anti-Trust Act • Allowed strikes, pickets, etc. • World War I • Sinking of the Lusitania • Zimmerman note • Germany trying to form an alliance with Mexico • Entered the war in 1917 • “Fourteen Points” • Established the moral reasons for WWI • Became the basis for German surrender

  33. Post-WWI • Instrumental in the Treaty of Versailles • League of Nations • Primarily Wilson’s idea • Won the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize for it • However, the US was never a member since the Senate failed to ratify the covenant • Opposition came mainly from Henry Cabot Lodge

  34. # 98 Warren G. Harding • President from 1921-1923 • VP: Calvin Coolidge • Republican • Administration filled with scandals • Teapot Dome Scandal • Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall sold the rights to national oil reserves to private companies • Kept the US out of the League of Nations • US did not ratify the Treaty of Paris • Considered one of the worst presidents in US history • Died of a heart attack two years into term

  35. # 30 Calvin Coolidge • President from 1923-1929 • VP: NONE (1923-1925); Charles G. Dawes (1925-1929) • Republican • President because of Harding’s death • Immigration Act of 1924 • Cut number of immigrants down to 150,000 • Completely excluded Japanese immigrants • Cut taxes in 1924 and 1926 • Increased spending money lead to over speculation which would eventually lead to the stock market crash

  36. Veteran’s Bonus—1924 • Passed despite Coolidge’s veto • Provided veterans with insurance redeemable in 20 years • Vetoed (twice) farm relief bills to support farm prices • Kellogg-Briand Pact • Fifteen countries agreed that war was not a viable method for settling disputes

  37. # 31 Herbert Hoover • Republican, 1929-1933, 58% of the vote and 444 out of 531 votes. • unprepared to take the necessary measures to help the unemployed • took actions against groups like the Bonus Marchers • shanty’s were called hoovervilles

  38. Herbert Hoover cont. • Hawley-Smoot Tariff was enacted to help protect farmers and others from foreign competition. Unfortunately, other nations also enacted tariffs which meant that trade around the world slowed down • He did not enact programs to help the unemployed but instead put some measures in place to help businesses.

  39. #32 Franklin D. Roosevelt • Democrat, 1933-1945, 12 years in office • 1st Term: 57% of the popular vote and 472 electors versus Hoover's 59. • 2nd Term: victory with 523 electoral votes versus Landon's 8. • 3rd Term: won with 449 out of 531 electoral votes. • 4th Term: 53% of the popular vote and winning 432 electoral votes versus 99 for Dewey.

  40. FDR cont. • Brain Trust to help him come up with effective public policy • Terms as president were marked by bold moves to fight the Great Depression and World War II • aggressive and unprecedented New Deal programs left a lasting mark on the American landscape • New Deal: the set of programs and policies designed to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the 1930s by FDR

  41. FDR cont. • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) • Works Progress Administration (WPA) • Social Security Act • Lend-Lease Act of 1941

  42. FDR cont. • declared a four-day banking holiday • Roosevelt met with Churchill and Joseph Stalin at Yalta where they promised concessions to Soviet Russia if the Soviets entered the war against Japan. • FDR's leadership throughout World War II led to victory for the Allies even though Roosevelt died before the war ended.

  43. #33 Harry S. Truman • 1945-1953, Democrat, 49% of the popular vote and 303 of the possible 531 electoral votes. • ordered two nuclear bombs- Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. • Reasoning: speed up WWII, stop mainland fighting, and to send a message to the Soviet Union that U.S. wasn’t afraid of using a bomb

  44. Truman cont. • Used Marshall Plan • Truman's time in office was the Red Scare • Passed 22nd Amendment • Taft-Hartley Act • Fair Deal • Truman Doctrine • Berlin Airlift • NATO created

  45. #34 Dwight D. Eisenhower • Republican, 1953-1961, 55% popular vote and 442 electoral votes • The campaign dealt with Communism and governmental waste. • Presidential term was in a time of relative peace (despite the Korean Conflict) and prosperity. • ensure that local schools were desegretated was an important step in the Civil Rights movement.

  46. Eisenhower cont. • embargo on Cuba • Eisenhower Doctrine: asserted that America had the right to aid any country threatened by Communist aggression. • sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to safeguard black students enrolling in a previously all-white school. • Berlin Wall erected 1961 • U-2 spy plane incident

  47. #35 John F. Kennedy • Democratic, 1961-1963, won by only 118,574 votes. Received 303 electoral votes. • were hailed as American royalty • More known as celebrity than president • Was assassinated November 22, 1963

  48. JFK cont. • Had trouble getting domestic policies through congress • However, increased minimum wage, better Social Security benefits, and an urban renewal package passed. • used executive orders and personal appeals to aid the Civil Rights movement

  49. JFK cont. • Bay of Pigs- small force of Cuban exiles were to lead a revolt in Cuba but were captured instead. • This stand off led to the dismantling of the missile silos in exchange for promises that the US would not invade Cuba.

  50. #36 Lyndon B. Johnson • 1963-1969, Democrat, won with 61% of the popular vote and 486 of the electoral votes. • Escalated the war in Vietnam and eventually had to turn to peace when the U.S. was unable to achieve victory