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Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooper PowerPoint Presentation
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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk. CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS. Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

Introduction

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Conclusions

slide3

International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

Introduction

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Conclusions

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

Introduction

Jan Tinbergen (1903-1994)

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

Introduction

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Conclusions

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

  • The international GATT agreement is based on three principles:
  • Non-discrimination; as expressed in two sub-principles
    • - Most Favored Nation (MFN) treatment
    • - National treatment of foreign products
  • Two main exceptions to the non-discrimination principle:
    • - Free trade areas and customs unions
    • - Developing countries
  • Reciprocity (exception: developing countries)
  • Prohibition on trade restriction other than tariffs (exception in case of balance-of-payments problems)
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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

Duration of GATT rounds and number of countries involved.

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

Introduction

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Conclusions

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

  • UN established in 1945, deals with many issues (culture, human rights, security, etc.); for economics most important ECOSOC:
  • Programs and Funds; UNCTAD, UNDP, UNHCR, UNICEF, etc.
  • Functional Commissions; Social Development, Human Rights, etc.
  • Regional Commissions; ECA, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, etc.
  • Specialized (independent) Agencies; ILO, FAO, UNESCO, WHO, WorldBank, IMF.
  • UNCTAD established out of dissatisfaction with the role of developing countries in the world economy (Group of 77); publishes the World Investment Report.
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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

Introduction

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Conclusions

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, OECD

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

Introduction

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Conclusions

slide13

International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Economic transition has different dimensions

slide14

International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

GDP/capita (index, 1990 = 100)

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

Introduction

The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT)

The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe

Conclusions

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International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

Conclusions

GATT, replaced by WTO, deals most directly with international trade problems (GATT rounds to reduce trade barriers become more complicated, take longer and involve more countries over the years).

UN organizations affect all aspects of human life; UNCTAD focuses on problems of developing countries.

OECD is organization of economically more advanced countries.

Adjusting a country’s organizational and institutional framework is an enormous and time-consuming process, as illustrated by the Central and Eastern European countries.