Prehistory. c. – means approximately. Exact date is unknown. B.C.E. – Before Common Era C.E. – Common Era Archeologist have limited evidence of humans who lived before the development of writing, but research has found a great deal of information about early civilizations.
c. – means approximately. Exact date is unknown.
B.C.E. – Before Common Era
C.E. – Common Era
Hominids Homo Erectus “Upright Man” Homo Sapiens “Wise Human”
Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age)
Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) and Transition to Agriculture
Agriculture = Permanent Villages = Population Explosion
South America ( potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts),
and Mesoamerica (maize, beans, squash, tomatoes)
1) Slash-and-burn cultivation
2) Merchants, Migrants, and Travelers
(Ex.: Wheat from Southwest Asia to Iran and Northern India – 5000 B.C.E., then to Northern China 3000 B.C.E. )
Years Human Population
3000 B.C.E. 14 million
2000 B.C.E. 27 million
1000 B.C.E. 50 million
500 B.C.E. 100 million
Foundations of Civilization
1) People are able to produce extra food.
2) People have built large towns or cities with
some form of government.
3) A division of labor exists: Different people perform specific
jobs instead of each person doing all kinds of work or the same work.
* Some historians consider a writing system as a characteristic of a civilization.
Division/ Specialization of Labor
A) Cultivate crops/ Tend to animals
food, which led to a population increase and villages growing into cities.
B) Hunt and forages for wild plants
C) Crafts and Trade
1) Pottery– Artistic Expression and Store Food
2) Metalworking- Smelt copper for jewelry and tools, later developed expertise in bronze, gold, and iron.
3) Textile Production- Selective breeding of animals and plants to create more durable fabrics. Women probably developed technology to spin fabric into thread and weave threads into cloth. WHY?
Egyptians using water from the Nile River for irrigation.
2) Owning land