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ISTITUTO DI ISTRUZIONE SECONDARIA SUPERIORE LEONARDO da VINCI 72015 F A S A N O (Br). LLP COMENIUS “ Cultural Heritage and National Identity ”. Realizzato con il contributo della Comunità e uropea. THE RECONQUEST IN SPAIN Coexistence between Moors

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LLP COMENIUS “ Cultural Heritage and National Identity ”

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    1. ISTITUTO DI ISTRUZIONE SECONDARIA SUPERIORE LEONARDO da VINCI 72015 F A S A N O (Br) LLP COMENIUS “Cultural Heritage and National Identity” Realizzato con il contributo della Comunità europea

    2. THE RECONQUEST IN SPAIN CoexistencebetweenMoors and Christians

    3. 1. Whendid the reconquest in Spain start? • The reconquest in Spainstartedwith the BattleofCovadonga in 722, with the victoryof the AsturiankingPelagiusover the Moors.

    4. 2. Whowas the king in Aragonbythistime? • Itended in 1492, when Granada, the last moorishterritory, wasconqueredby the Catholickings, Ferdinando and Isabella. The MoorshadinvadedSpain in the 8th centurywhen the countrywasdominatedby the Visigots. During the MoorishdominationSpainwascalledAl-Andalus

    5. 3. Howdidtheyacttoreconquereterritories? • By 1252 mostofIberiawas back under Christian rule and the Emirateof Granada was the last Muslim state left in the peninsula. Granada became a vassal state of Christian Castilla. Thisarrangementlasteduntil 1482 when the Castilianslaunched the Granada War whichendedallMuslim authority in Spain in 1492, completing the Reconquista. The last Muslimrulerof Granada, King Boabdil (photo), surrenderedhiskingdom Isabella ofCastilla and Ferdinand II ofAragon. The Reconquista, beingofsuchgreatduration, ismuch more complexthananysimple account wouldallow. Christian and Muslimrulerscommonlybecamedividedamongthemselves and fought. Alliancesacrossfaithlineswerenotunusual. The fightingalong the Christian–Muslimfrontierwaspunctuatedbyperiodsofprolongedpeace and truces. Blurringmattersevenfurtherwere the mercenarieswhosimplyfoughtforwhoeverpaid the most.

    6. 4. Whywasitnecessaryto stay the Moorsinhabitants in the reconqueredlands and how are theycalledfromthattime? Often, the Moorsremainedin the conqueredlands and theywerecalledMudejar. Theywereaboveallfarmers. Theyhadtopay a taxessince the tradewith the Middle East and North Africa wasveryflourishing and the muslims (parias) where a meanstoget the preciousafricangold.

    7. 5. In the Middle Ages in Spaintherewas a spiritofreligioustolerance, whatis the best prove ofit? • In the MedievalSpaintherewasreligioustolerance. In fact people belongingtothreedifferentreligions, Catholics, Jews and Muslims, livedpeacefully, reaching a high levelofcivilization.

    8. 6. Whatdid the Moorsbringtoour culture? The Arabiandominationbroughtalso some influences. Theyhad, in fact, goodrelationshipswith the mostdeveloped Middle easternCountries and introduced in Spainnewcropssuchasrice, dates, pomegranade, sugarcane and alsonewfarmingmethods, suchasirrigation. Great townssuchasSevilla, Cordova, Valencia, Granada, developed and flourished, sincetrade and craftmashiphadimproved. Cordoba, forexamplehadhalfmillioninhabitants and was the mostdeveloped and flourishingtown in Spain and, maybe, in Europe. In the schoolsteology and law, fhilosofhy and maths, astronomy and physicsweretaught.

    9. 7. Whatis the period and mainfeaturesofMudejar art? Mudejar art After the reconquest, the Mudejar art developed in Spain.

    10. 8. Give 3 differentexamplesofMudejar Art in Spain’ • Its best expressionis the Alcazar in Sevilla (builtbetween 1353 and 1364 by Peter I. 1369). The most beautiful representativetownof the Mudejar Art are Sevilla, Toledo and Saragozza.

    11. 9. Mudejar Art is the expressionof a society in whichlivedthreedifferentreligions, whichones? The threereligions are : Christian , Jewish and Muslim (Ferdinando II d’ Aragona)

    12. 10. PopulationMuslim, Jewish and Catholic in Spainbefore the reconquest The Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Spain Islamic Spain was a multi-cultural mix of the people of three great monotheistic religions: Muslims, Christians, and Jews. Although Christians and Jews lived under restrictions, for much of the time the three groups managed to get along together, and to some extent, to benefit from the presence of each other. It brought a degree of civilisation to Europe that matched the heights of the Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance.

    13. 11. WhichjobsweremostlydonebyMoors? The Moorswereskilledartisans and craftsmen

    14. 12. Whatwas the ( Alhama) Aljamaorganization? TheMorerìa or Muslim Quarter was generally outside the walls of the city and was set apart by walls from the Christian and Jewish quarters. Christians had free access to the morerìa but Christian officials had no authority there uless it was officially delegated by the king. The internal affairs of Aljama were in the hands of theadelantati , elected officials . They could decide nothing without the consent of the Christian Major of the city They were only mouthpiece for the king. Morerìas were equipped with sophisticated irrigation,and water system, public baths, markets, hospitals and beautiful mosques

    15. 13. Give the nameof 3 disheswhichoriginisArabic. • Startingwithherbs and spicesAndaluciahasalwaysbeen a source ofthyme, oregano, rosemary and bay but the moorsboughtusmany more flavours. Mintbecame a popularflavour and isusedextensively in the preparationofmeats and snails! Cinnamon, nutmeg, sesame, coriander and aniseedallbecame part of the dailypreparationofsweets, breads, drinks and meats. “Arroz con leche” (rice pudding) withcinnamonbeing a classicexample. However the queen ofallspices–saffron – wasalsointroducedby the Arabs and stillreigns supreme forflavouring and colour, especially in ricedishes. • Rice in factisanotherintroductionfromacross the Straits and soongrew in popularityfrom a luxuryfoodtoaneverydaymeal. The paella in factis a basicArabintroduction, althoughwe associate itwith Valencia ratherthanAndalucia. As the Arabsplantedrice in this area. No paella is complete withoutrice, saffron and some of the manydifferentsortsofvegetablesintroducedbyourgastronomicneighbours. Goodsolidlentilbaseddisheswerealso a welcome addition • The pine nutas a deliciousadditiontocakes and saucesalsoarrivedthen. Manysmallvillageshavetheirspecialcakesbased on almonds or pine nuts. The “pionate” ofJimena, nearSotogrande, is a richmixtureofalmondflour, honey, spices and pine nuts. It’s a bit like Kendall’s MintCake, a smallpiece can keepyougoingforhours and itdoesn’t go off!

    16. 14. In yourcountry, whatreligionslivedtogether in the Middle Ages? How didtheycohexist? • MuchofSouthern Italy experienced a slow processoforientalisation in religious life (rites, cults and liturgy), whichaccompanied a spread ofEasternchurches and monasteriesthatpreserved and transmitted the Greek and Hellenistictradition (the Cattolica monastery in Stilo is the mostrepresentativeoftheseByzantinemonuments). Fromthento the Normanconquestof the 11th century, the southof the peninsulawasconstantlyplungedintowarsbetweenGreece, Lombardy, and the IslamicCaliphate. The latterestablishedseveralIslamicstates in southern Italy, suchas the EmirateofSicily and Emirateof Bari. Amalfi, anindependentrepublicfrom the 7th centuryuntil 1075, and to a lesserextentGaeta, Molfetta, and Trani, rivalle • (La riconquista di Bari)

    17. Realizzato da: FurleoAngela-GaleotaIlenia-LeporeGianni- Miccolis Francesca -ScianaroErminia-ZizziGiovanni- Coordinate dai docenti: Baccaro Eugenia - Gargano Lilli Mutinati Caterina - ZizziFlaviano I.I.S.S. “L. da VINCI” FASANO ITALY