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Ch. 1-Introduction to First Aid Care. 1.1 What Is First Aid?. The principal aims of first aid are to Recognize life-threatening situations Activate the EMS system Supply artificial ventilation and circulation when needed Control bleeding Care for other life-threatening conditions

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Ch 1 introduction to first aid care l.jpg
Ch. 1-Introduction toFirst Aid Care

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1.1 What Is First Aid?

The principal aims of first aid are to

  • Recognize life-threatening situations

  • Activate the EMS system

  • Supply artificial ventilation and circulation when needed

  • Control bleeding

  • Care for other life-threatening conditions

  • Minimize further injury and complications

  • Prevent infection

  • Make the victim as comfortable as possible

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PROGRESS CHECK

1. First aid is the ____________ care given to a person who is injured or suddenly becomes ill. (first/basic/temporary)

2. One of the primary principles of first aid is to ____________.

(activate the EMS system/drive the patient to the hospital/care for all wounds yourself)

3. A goal of first aid is to minimize____________.

(complications/pain/need for additional care)

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1.2 General Procedures

1. Observe the accident scene as you approach it.

2. Keep yourself and others at the scene safe.

3. Gain access to the victim(s) and determine any immediate threats to life.

4. Provide basic life support to those whose lives are threatened.

5. Summon more advanced medical help if needed.

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Arranging for Medical Assistance (Activating the EMS System)

  • The exact location of the victim

  • The phone number where you can be reached

  • Any information about the victim that will help the dispatcher

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PROGRESS CHECK

1. You should provide basic life support first to ____________.

(victims of cardiac arrest/victims who are bleeding/the most seriously injured)

2. During the first few minutes after an accident, you should activate ____________. (bystanders/the EMS system/additional caregivers)

3. If you are alone, you should provide rescue support to a child for ____________ before telephoning for help. (1 minute/2 minutes/5 minutes)

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1.3 Aspects of First Aid

  • First Aider Skills

  • Legal Aspects of First Aid

  • Controversies in First Aid Care

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Legal Aspects of First Aid

  • Duty to Act

  • Good Samaritan Laws

  • “Reasonable-Man” Test

  • Right to Refuse Care

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PROGRESS CHECK

1.Duty to act means you have a _________ to give aid. (responsibility/legal obligation/choice)

2. The “reasonable-man” test shows that you acted as a normal, prudent person would have acted under the ____________. (same circumstances/law)

3. ____________ means you acted with carelessness, inattention, disregard, or oversight.

(Imprudence/Negligence/Recklessness)

4. Every competent adult has the right to give ____________ to treatment. (approval/permission/consent)

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1.4 Infectious Disease Transmission

For disease to spread, three things must happen:

1. Infecting organisms, such as bacteria and viruses,

must survive outside their host—an infected person,

an animal, or an insect.

2. The infecting organism must then move from one

place to another.

3. The infecting organism must then invade a new

person’s body and begin to multiply there.

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A rash or skin lesion

An open sore

Diarrhea

Vomiting

Headache with stiff neck

Yellowish skin or eyes

Coughing or sneezing

Draining or oozing wounds

Profuse sweating

Abdominal pain

Identifying Infectious Diseases

A victim with any of the following should be considered infectious:

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Identifying Infectious Diseases

  • Not all patients who are infectious will show outward signs of disease. You should avoid all contact will all body fluids from patients – regardless of whether they appear sick.

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Vocabulary

  • Good Samaritan laws- Laws that protect health care personnel and provide guidelines for care

  • Negligence- Acting with carelessness, inattention, disregard, inadvertence, or avoidable oversight

  • “Reasonable-man” test- Did the First Aider act the same way a normal, prudent person with similar training would have acted under the same circumstances?

  • Actual consent- Informed consent

  • Implied consent- Assumption that a victim of life-threatening injury or illness would give consent

  • Minor’s consent- The right of consent given to a parent or guardian

  • Infectious disease- A disease that can be transmitted from one person to another or from an insect or animal to a person

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Bloodborne Pathogens

  • Hepatitis B

  • Hepatitis C

  • HIV

  • Herpes

  • Tuberculosis

  • Meningitis

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PROGRESS CHECK

1. To prevent the risk of bloodborne infection, you

should always wear _________ when caring for a

victim.

(a face mask/a gown/protective gloves)

2. Use a ____________ when giving mouth-to-mouth

resuscitation.

(face mask/pocket mask/face shield)

3. The best protection against disease you have is to

____________ after giving treatment.

(wash your hands/take an antibiotic/use antiseptic)

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1.5 Safety at the Scene

  • Fire

  • Unstable Structures

  • Motor Vehicle Accidents

  • Electrical Hazards

  • Water

  • Hostility and Violence

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PROGRESS CHECK

1. Your first priority at the scene of an accident is ____________.

(reaching the victim/staying safe/preventing further injury to the victim)

2. You should call the fire department in case of ____________.

(any fire/a fire that is out of control/a fire that is creating toxic fumes)

3. One of the greatest threats to safety from a motor vehicle accident is ____________. (fire/gasoline fumes/oncoming traffic)

4. You can touch a downed power line __________.

(with a stick/if you are wearing rubber-soled boots/only after the power company has turned off the power)

5. If a victim is hostile, _______________________.

(restrain the victim yourself/have bystanders help you

restrain the victim/call the police)

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