Introduction to the First Aid Program AIM; is to inform the students about the First Aid Program and convey them basic terminology of First Aid.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES • In the end of this lecture the students should be able to; • tell the definition of first aid, • tell the difference between first aid and emergency care • explain the aims of first aid • list the features of a first aider • explain the details when calling medical help (112) • tell priorites in First Aid
First Aid Program AIM • to convey terms and concepts related to first aid. • to equip with first aid skills on the model.
First Aid Program LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this course, student should be able to: KNOWLEDGE • explain basic terms and concepts in first aid. • list medical issues requiring first aid and frequently encountered problems. • list steps of first aid.
First Aid Program LEARNING OBJECTIVES SKILLS • apply • basic life support, • basic transport techniques, • basic bandaging techniques completely and in accordance with the skills check list.
TOPICS • Introduction to the First Aid Programmes • Legal Aspect of First Aid • Scene Assessment • Basic life support • Shock and bleeding control • The unconscious Causalty • Assessment of traumatized patient • Injuries • Burns, Heatstroke, Frostbite • Fractures and dislocation • Animal and insect bite • Poisoning • Foreign objects in the eye,nose,ear • Chocking • Drowning
Lecturers • Güldal İzbırak, MD • Hülya Akan, MD • Özlem Tanrıöver, MD • Ayse Arzu Akalın, MD
Assessment • The Midterm exam will be written exam in MCQ style, effecting the 40% of the end of the year grade • The Final exam will be OSCE*, effecting the 60% of the end of the year grade. *Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE)
REALISM OF TASKS LOW HIGH COMPLEXITY OF TASKS LOW HIGH ASSESSMENT TIME NEEDED SUBJECTIVITY INTEGRATION LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH Testing Performance assessment Selected response Supply response Restricted performance Extended performance • - Essay • Short answer • - Oral exam… - MCQ - Matching - True-False… - Standardized patient - MiniCEX - Portfolio… - Maneq. Model exam. - Procedural skills - Laboratory skills Norman E. Grounlund. (2006) Assessment of Student Achievement
Students rotating through different OSCE stations http://www.lts.leeds.ac.uk/bulletin/issue14/page6.php
What is First Aid? • Webster’s says: “Emergency treatment for injury etc, before regular medical care is available” • In any life-threatining condition or accident, managing the causalty(ies) with available equipment, without using any medication and medical equipment to save life or prevent condition getting worse. • What does this mean for us? • Why should people know First Aid?
Emergency FIRST AID • If you are the first on the scene of accident that results in an injury or serious illness, you may be the only link between a victim and emergency medical care. Your role is to take action, whether by providing first aid, seeking medical help or calling 112. Your actions may improve the victims chance of recovery.
What is Emergency CARE? • Medical treatment by healthcare providers in Emergency units.
Who is First Aid Provider? People who manage the causalty(ies) with available equipment, without using any medication and medical equipment in the regard of the principles mentioned in the definition of first aid.
The difference between first aid and emergency care Emergency care is performed by qualified persons who are highly educated in this area First aid is performed by anyone who is educated regarding first aid
PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID • REMOVE THE LIFE-THREATINING CONDITION • PRESERVE LIFE ( Assess and support vital functions) • PREVENT CONDITION GETTING WORSE • PROMOTE RECOVERY
* Assessment In Action… • Recognize the Emergency • Decide whether to Help • NOTE! You have not “entered” the scene yet! • Scene Safety(Preserve) • Call EMS if needed(Inform) • Still haven’t touched the victim/patient yet! • Assess the Victim • OK now you can touch them! • Provide Care(Rescue)
BASIC FIRST AID APPLICATIONS • Preserve (Scene Assessment) • Inform • Rescue
WHAT TO DO IN AN EMERGENCY ASSESSMENT OF: Protection: Decrease the risks and dangerous statements to the minimum.Provide safety. HAZARDS RISK OF CONTAMINATION Informing: Call 112 or send someone for getting help Intervention: AVAILABILITY OF HELP
When NOT to Help! • Unable to access victims • Your safety is at risk • Risk of fire, explosion • You are ‘medicated’ or, otherwise impaired
SAFETY • Roadways • Poisons /Chemicals • Fire Explosion • Other People • Number of injured • Hazards • Remember! You can’t help anyone if you become injured while trying to render aid!
How to Call 112 • Information Desired By Dispatchers • Type of emergency and specific location • Number of victims/patients • Any threats to responders (i.e fire, blocked roads) • Any care given, and any trained rescuers • Your name and call back number • BE CALM !
Attributes of the First Aider; He/she should • be good at communication skills • own the basic knowledge regarding to the human body He/she should be able to • provide self safety • be calm and self confident • assess of available sources • inform quickly and correctly
Priorities in Action- 1 • Assess the patients /causalties (P/C) (ABC) and detect the ones who are of first priority • Reassure P/C • Organize the others • Take precautions to prevent the condition of the P/C getting worse using the available tools • Care for fractures in site • Keep P/C warm
Priorities in Action- 2 • Do not allow the P/C to see his/her injury • Do not move the P/C during your interventions • Take precautions for immobilization • Recognize and stabilize Suspected Spinal Injury • Transport the causalty with the most appropriate way to ER
Why should I help? • Ethical • If not you, then who? • What if it was your child? • The individual renders care to the best of their abilities without exceeding their training (no pocket knife tracheotomies!) • Remember! You CANNOT HELP anyone if you become injured while trying to render aid! NOTE: No one can FORCE you to render aid when your safety is at risk!!! There may be circumstances when you should NOT render aid!
FOUR RINGS OF “RESCUE LIFE CHAIN” Inform Basic life Support Advanced cardiac life Support (Ambulance) Advanced cardiac life Support (ER)
Four Rings of Chain of Survival • 1. Ring: Call 112 • 2. Ring: Basic Life Support (BLS) at site • 3. Ring: Interventions by medical staff in ambulance • 4. Ring: Interventions in Emergency Department
Calling 112 • Stay calm, if not let a calm person call 112 • Answer the questions clearly • Give correct address • Inform who is calling and give your phone number • Give patient/causalty ID and describe the case • Tell how many patient/causalty is involved and their condition • Inform if you have applied first aid and if yes the details • Do not break the line till you are told by the call center
What is the ABC of FIRST AID? Check consciousness, if unconscious assess quickly ; • Airway (head tilt, chin lift) • Breathing (Look, listen, and feel) • Circulation (chest compression)
Describe when and how you would use a tourniquet. • Never !... • Contrary to what you may think, the use of a tourniquet is highly discouraged. Remember, the proper treatment for a wound with flowing blood is: 1) Direct Pressure 2) Elevation 3) Pressure Point, 4) Pinch.
You arrive first on the scene of an accident. What is the absolute first thing that you do?. • Survey the scene !... • If the person fell down a rock slide, make sure you don't make the same mistake trying to get to them. Try to discover if a danger is still present and how you are going to avoid it if necessary .
What is Hyperglycaemia?Hypoglycaemias? What is standard first aid for each? • Hyperglycemia is caused by too much sugar in the body, hypoglycemia is caused by too little sugar in the body. The treatment for both is to give the patient sugar, because if they are hypoglycemic, it will help, if they are hyperglycemic, it won't do any harm
True or False? rubbing butter, yoghurt, margarine or other oil on a burn will help. • False.!... In fact, rubbing these on may make the burn worse since they will trap the heat in. For 1st degree burns and some 2nd degree burns, run under cold water .
What is the correct ratio of chest compressions to breaths when performing CPR? • 30 compressions to 2 breaths in 1 person CPR • 30 compressions to 2 breaths in 2 person CPR
When performing a water rescue, what is the suggested course of action? • Reach, Throw, Go!. • It is tempting to jump into the water, swim over, grab the person and drag them out of the water. This is the way that they do it in the movies, how ever, if you can't swim, there is a strong current, or other factors, you may start drowning and also need rescuing! • A better course of action is first to try to reach out to the person from a stable position, or reach to them with something, a branch, paddle, etc. • If they are too far away, try throwing them something. Throw them a life ring, a life vest, toss that towards them, it'll give them something to hold onto and float with.
What one treatment should always be done regardless of the type of injury? • Treat for shock, and treat for shock!
A well-stocked first aid kit is a handy thing to have. To be prepared for emergencies: • Keep a first aid kit in your home and in your car. • Carry a first aid kit with you or know where you can find one.
Whether you buy a first aid kit or put one together, make sure it has all the items you may need: • Include any personal items such as medications and emergency phone numbers or other items your health-care provider may suggest. • Check the kit regularly. • Make sure the flashlight batteries work. • Check expiration dates and replace any used or out-of-date contents.
First Aid Kit -1 • 2 absorbent compress dressings (5 x 9 inches) • 25 adhesive bandages (assorted sizes) • 1 adhesive cloth tape (10 yards x 1 inch) • 5 antibiotic ointment packets (approximately 1 gram) • 5 antiseptic wipe packets • 2 packets of aspirin (81 mg each) • 1 blanket (space blanket) • 1 breathing barrier (with one-way valve) • 1 instant cold compress • 2 pair of nonlatex GLOVES (size: large??) • 2 hydrocortisone ointment packets (approximately 1 gram each)
First Aid Kit-2 • Scissors • 1 roller bandage (3 inches wide) • 1 roller bandage (4 inches wide) • 5 sterile gauze pads (3 x 3 inches) • 5 sterile gauze pads (4 x 4 inches) • Oral thermometer (non-mercury/nonglass) • 2 triangular bandages • Tweezers • First aid instruction booklet
Basic Principle Primum non nocere given an existing problem, it may be better not to do something, or even to do nothing, than to risk causing more harm than good.