ITRS Factory Integration. Thanks to 100+ FI TWG members for providing inputs and participating in developing the 2007 Factory Integration chapter. Mani Janakiram December 2007 Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Japan. Global Co-Chairs: Europe: Arieh Greenberg Japan: Shige Kobayashi, Michio Honma
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ITRS Factory Integration Thanks to 100+ FI TWG members for providing inputs and participating in developing the 2007 Factory Integration chapter Mani Janakiram December 2007 Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Japan Global Co-Chairs: Europe: Arieh Greenberg Japan: Shige Kobayashi, Michio Honma Korea: C. S. Park, S. H. Park Taiwan: Thomas Chen US: Mani Janakiram
Agenda • Scope and Difficult Challenges • Technology Requirements & Potential Solutions • Top Factory Integration Focus Areas • Factory Integration Cross-Cut Issues • Summary
UI Factory Integration Scope and Drivers Factory Operations Production Equipment Factory Information & Control Systems AMHS Facilities Si Substrate Mfg Chip Mfg Wafer Mfg Product Mfg Distribution Reticle Mfg • FEOL • BEOL • Probe/Test • Singulation • Packaging • Test Increasing cost & Cycle time implications • Factory is driven by Cost, Quality, Productivity, and Speed • Reduce factory capital and operating costs per function • Faster delivery of new and volume products to the end customer • Efficient/Effective volume/mix production, high reliability, & high equipment reuse • Enable rapid process technology shrinks and wafer size changes
Key Technologies that will Impact Factory Design • 2007 and future years were targeted to meet productivity and capture technology requirements • Key process & device technology intercepts that will impact the factory design are Extreme Ultraviolet Litho (EUVL), New Device Structures, new materials, 450mm conversion & huge productivity improvements • Economic and business challenges are equal to our manufacturing and process technology challenges in scope and breadth to attain efficiency and effectiveness Planning for 300Prime/450mm EUVL in Production? New Device Structures? 450mm in Production?
Factory Integration Sub team – 2007 Update 2007 FI chapter provides details on technology requirements and potential solutions
Processing Standby Standby/processing =100% Electric power (kW) 80 70 Standby/processing =75% 60 1:1 RATIO 50 Time Average effective electric power during standby (kW) 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Average effective electric power during processing (kW) Standby? Energy conservation/ Equipment Sleep Mode GOAL: Reduce facility operation cost by enabling facility demand based utilization model – including energy conservation • Actions for eqp energy conservation • Enable support component ‘idle mode’ when tool in not processing • Identify potential tool types (i.e., Dielectric, metals, dry etch, diffusion, etc.) • Identify capability on existing tool sets (using SEMI E54.18) and develop a pilot • Define potential savings • Define plans for integrating fab MES and facility systems Courtesy: Factory Facilities
Next Generation 300Prime/450mm Fab Guidelines 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012? NG Factory Guidelines combined with ITRS TR & PS Interoperability Testing & Reliability Verification 5 6 Factory Control System Standards 4 300mmプライム推進派 ISMI Guidelines 450mm Era JEITA Guidelines Productivity Axis Direct Transport Standards Cycle time &Cost/Cm2 reduction STK STK 300mm Prime Wafer by wafer Process Start Speed etc Seasoning etc Production Equipment Standards Driven by productivity & cost improvements (Cycle time & cost/cm2) 450mm wafer Standards Tool Tool 300mm Classic Carrier & lot-size determination Wafer Point Of View Equipment maker Inputs 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2 Source XTime Dest XTime Inter-Bay XTime Today Next several years 450 Time axis Source Tool Wait Time Source STK Wait Time Dest STK Wait Time Dest Tool Wait Time 3 ITRS FI TWG will synchronize with JEITA and ISMI WG on NGF (300Prime) & 450mm guidelines to address FI challenges, technology requirements and potential solutions Courtesy: JEITA/ISMI
Net result:Actions performed on a wafer during its time spent in the factory Productivity is affected by: • Scheduling of wafers as they flow between processing equipment • Traceability of wafers in the factory • Randomization Net result:Efficiency in using all resources in the factory Productivity is affected by: • Equipment Availability • Equipment Utilization • Overall Equipment Efficiency is utilizing all processing resources Factory View Scale Net result:Efficiency in use of substrate Productivity is affected by: • Device geometry and scaling • Die Yield improvement • Functional Design enhancements Net result:Optimum use of processing equipment Productivity is affected by: • Throughput of processing equipment • Cost of processing equipment • Reliability of processing equipment • Variability of processing equipment Unit View Wafer view Equipment view Perspective Productivity improvement approach Equipment Performance in the Factory Factory Systems Scheduling, WIP . . . Equipment Capability and Throughput Device Scaling Waste reduction roadmap would address fab and equipment productivity losses (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve) Source: E. Englhardt, ISSM 2007 9
Net result:Total time that a wafer spends in the factory Eradicate waste by eliminating any time: • Spent waiting without action • Spent undergoing an action not required by all wafers • Spent undergoing a process that is added and subsequently removed Net result:Total factory output of good product Eradicate waste by closing the gap between: • Designed throughput and actual throughput for each piece of equipment • Designed use of environmental resources such as power and water, process gases, consumables, and actual consumption Factory view Scale 3 4 Net result:Optimum use of per unit of silicon substrate Eradicate waste of silicon by: • Reducing silicon content/transistor • Decreasing die loss • Reducing the number of chips required per function Net result:Efficiency in use of materials and investment for providing the equipment function Eradicate waste by decreasing: • Equipment cost per function • Equipment footprint per function • Operational overhead • Equipment non-availability Unit view 1 2 Wafer view Equipment view Perspective Waste reduction potential solutions Waste of Equipment Output Waste of Wafer Time Waste of Equipment Resources and Investment Waste of Silicon FI to focus on top 2 quadrants Source: E. Englhardt, ISSM 2007 10
Process View Tool View Product View Semiconductor Factory Step 1 Logical World Product Business Type Quality Tool 1 Area A Product Cost Common Process Group A Process Delivery Physical World How well is it realized? ESH Capacity Understanding Assumptions Understanding Results Products/Process Factory Operation Resources Understanding Activity In-Competitive Area Competitive Factory Visualization Metrics to evaluate waste Key Indicators GOAL: Provide measurable/actionable metrics for managing factory at various levels easily Courtesy: STRJ
<8> Abnormal • Detection • Wafer Restore • Trouble Restore • <4> Eqp Conditioning • Dummy Wafer Setting • Vacuuming • Heating • Seasoning 25 • <3> Set-ups • Reticle Settting • Ion Source Changing • <5> Quality Conditioning • Send-Ahead • Inspection Results Wait • Monitor Setting 20 15 • <2> Recipe Setting • Recipe Down Load • Variable parameter Setting • <6> Actual Process • Processing • Wafer Handling 10 Processing Time 5 • <1> Start • ID Read • Docking • Door Opening • Wafer Mapping • <7> End • Door Close • Undocking y = ax + b b 15 10 5 25 20 # of Wafers in a Carrier (lot?) Enhance Visibility of Equipment Activity • FI is working on putting the equip eng data contents in ITRS tables • Required for data contents meeting the equipment performance needs • Required for enhanced equipment quality management and assurance • Text on equip eng data contents included in 2007 FI chapter SECS data port exist – raw data Equip eng data content requested model based data + activity/event data (energy, B/A, Setup time, etc.) setup time contributors Impact of equip intrinsic cycle time loss defined by a model Courtesy: STRJ
Factory Integration Roadmap Yield Enhancement Roadmap Fab environment Technology Requirements Wafer/Tool environment Wafer AMC Concepts and Requirements from FI perspective • AMC limits are addressed in the YE TWG, and the WECC sub TWG • Fab environment requirements are being defined in the FI TWG • Equipment, AMHS and FOUP • AMC monitoring & control Courtesy: YE / WECC
Layout Test data Packaged IC Device models Circuit architecture Design rules Layout with critical paths Test data Packaged IC Organizational, corporate cultural and geographical barriers Circuit architecture Device models Designers Design rules Wafer fab Masks Masks optimized based on design intent Role of PCS/APC? Statistical timing optimization Process variation distributions Designers Known contours of CD, topography or overlay error with mfg. process Wafer fab LWR = Line Width Roughness; LER = Line Edge Roughness ITRS Litho Challenges/Needs New mode of operation with design for manufacturing (DFM) practices • Design for Mfg (DFM) needed for: • Immersion litho challenges • Double Patterning needs • EUVL challenges • Controlling LWR and LER increasingly important • Stringent overlay tolerances needed Present mode of operation for circuit design and fabrication DFM Integration of design, modeling, lithographic resolution enhancement techniques and extensive metrology needed to maintain expected circuit performance Source: Based on ITRS Litho TWG
Factory Integration Summary • All FI technology requirements tables and potential solutions tables updated in the 2007 FI chapter • Operations, Equipment, AMHS, FICS and Facilities • Identified key focus areas for FI • Technology requirement and potential solutions for 300Prime/450mm • Energy Conservation (equipment sleep mode) • Productivity waste reduction roadmap would address fab and equipment productivity • AMC solutions for equipment and FOUP • Working with other TWG on cross-cut issues • With FEP, Litho, Metrology, Yield Enhancement and ESH • EUVL, single wafer processing, energy conservation, etc. • Work with other forums/WG to ensure synergy and roadmap sync. • Work with - ISMI 450mm WG, STRJ, IMA, JEITA, SEMI, etc. • Sync. on timing, technology requirements, cross-cut issues, etc. • Improve sub-team participation to obtain cross-synergy • Business strategies, market demands, and process technology changes continue to make factories difficult to integrate • FI TWG will continue to address these challenges in 2008 and beyond Thanks!
Backup Solution exists Solution being developed Solution required Factory Operations Technology Requirements Key Objectives: Speed & Flexibility 1) Reduce mfg cycle times, 2) Improve Equipment Utilization, 3) Reduce Losses from High Mix
Backup Production Equipment Technology Requirements Key Objectives: 1) NPW reduction, 2) Reliability Improvement, 3) Run rate (throughput) improvement Productivity & Cost Solution exists Solution being developed Solution required
Backup Automated Material Handling Technology Requirements Key Objectives: 1) Increase throughput for Traditional and Unified Transport, 2) Reduce Average Delivery times, 3) Improve Reliability Solution exists Solution being developed Solution required
Backup Factory Info. Control Systems Technology Requirements Key Objectives: 1) Increase Reliability, 2) Increase Factory Throughput, 3) Reduce or Maintain Mask Shop Cycle Time, 4) Reduce Costs Solution exists Solution being developed Solution required
Backup Facilities Technology Requirements Key Objectives: 1) Factory Extendibility, 2) AMC, 3) Rapid Install/Qualification, 4) Reduce Costs Solution exists Solution being developed Solution required