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Part II: Ethics. Ch. 2: How should one live? Ch. 3: How can I know what is right? Ch. 4: What makes society just? Ch. 5: Is justice for all possible?. Chapter 2: How Should One Live?. What constitutes a “good life”? Need to answer moral questions in a way that is not ambiguous or vague

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Part ii ethics

Part II: Ethics

Ch. 2: How should one live?

Ch. 3: How can I know what is right?

Ch. 4: What makes society just?

Ch. 5: Is justice for all possible?


Chapter 2 how should one live
Chapter 2: How Should One Live?

  • What constitutes a “good life”?

  • Need to answer moral questions in a way that is not ambiguous or vague

  • What is the difference between actual desires and one’s idea of what they ought to do?


Answering moral questions
Answering Moral Questions

  • Moral questions must be answered in a way that is not:

    • Ambiguous – has many meanings and is not clear precisely to what it refers

    • Vague – without clear distinctions


Answering moral questions1
Answering Moral Questions

  • Moral questions should be answered in way that is:

    • Descriptive – describes the kinds of values people have and the sorts of principles they use

    • Normative – the norms that ought to guide one’s actions


Reading the philosophers
Reading the Philosophers

  • Ask yourself how the author would answer these questions:

    • What is the good life?

    • How is the good life attained?

    • Why is the life described as a good one?


Justification for answers
Justification for Answers

  • When asking why questions, the author should provide two types of justification:

    • Justification of the goal

    • Justification of the means


The buddha and the middle way
The Buddha and the Middle Way

  • Buddha= “the Enlightened One”

  • Siddhartha Gautama (563 BCE.) was deemed Buddha after being enlightened concerning how to attain wisdom and overcome suffering

  • Nirvana – release from suffering


Buddhism
Buddhism

  • Buddhism developed from Siddhartha Gautama’s teaching

  • Three main groups

    • Theravada – Way of the Elders

    • Mahayana – Greater Vehicle

    • Vajrayana – Diamond Vehicle


Buddhism1
Buddhism

  • Four Noble Truths – heart of Buddah’s message.

  • Middle Way or Eightfold Path – the Fourth Noble Truth


The four noble truths the buddha
The Four Noble TruthsThe Buddha

  • The Noble Truth of Suffering

  • The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering

  • The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

  • The Noble Truth of the Way of Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering


The noble truth of suffering
The Noble Truth of Suffering

  • Suffering is understood through the five aggregates (components of the individual human being) of grasping

  • The aggregates of grasping

    • Form

    • Feeling

    • Perception

    • Mental formations

    • Consciousness


The noble truth of the origin of suffering
The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering

  • A craving or desire arises and establishes itself through the pleasures of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, and mind-objects


The noble truth of the cessation of suffering
The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

  • Complete fading away and extinction of craving or desire

  • Liberation from desires


Noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of suffering
Noble Truth of the Way of Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering

  • Noble Eightfold Path

    • Right View

    • Right Thought

    • Right Speech

    • Right Action

    • Right Livelihood

    • Right Effort

    • Right Mindfulness

    • Right Concentration


The fourth noble truth walpola rahula
The Fourth Noble Truth of SufferingWalpola Rahula

  • Fourth Noble Truth Composed of Eightfold Path

  • Called the “Middle Path” because it avoids two extremes:

    • Search for happiness through pleasure of senses

    • Search for happiness through self-mortification


The fourth noble truth walpola rahula1
The Fourth Noble Truth of SufferingWalpola Rahula

  • Eightfold Path promote three essentials of Buddhist training and discipline

    • Ethical Conduct – Right speech, action, and livelihood

    • Mental Discipline – Right effort, mindfulness, and concentration

    • Wisdom – Right thought and understanding


Confucius and the life of virtue
Confucius and the Life of Virtue of Suffering

  • Confucius:

    • born in China (551 – 479 BCE)

    • “humanistic social philosophy” – concern for achieving good social order and cultivating humane qualities in the human spirit


Confucius and the life of virtue1
Confucius and the Life of Virtue of Suffering

  • Key attributes of Confucian philosophy

    • Ren (jen) – “goodness,” “benevolence,” and “humanheartedness.” What we become by cultivating aesthetic, moral, cognitive, and spiritual sensibilities.

    • Li – rules of proper behavior. Grounded in tradition.

    • Xiao (hsiao) – practice of kindness, honor, respect, and loyalty among family members

    • Yi – refers to what is appropriate or fitting to do in a given situation


Confucius and moral character d c lau
Confucius and Moral Character of SufferingD. C. Lau

  • Distinctions of ideal moral character

    • Sage (sheng jen) – highest level of moral character

    • Good man and complete man

    • Gentleman (chün tzu) – characterized by benevolence.

    • Small man (Hsiao Jen) – opposite of gentleman


Confucius and moral character d c lau1
Confucius and Moral Character of SufferingD. C. Lau

  • Becoming a Gentleman: The meaning of benevolence.

    • “Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire” (XII.2)

    • Shu – method of discovering what other people do or do not wish done to them

    • Chung – doing one’s best, practicing what one has learned from shu

    • Benevolence consists in overcoming self and observance of rites


Socrates on living the examined life
Socrates on Living the Examined Life of Suffering

  • Socrates was born in Athens 9 years after Confucius died

  • Socratic method – consists of asking questions to formulate, critique, and reform definitions of concepts

  • Divine command theory – God’s command or will makes something morally right


The apology plato
The Apology of SufferingPlato

  • Plato’s account of the trial and defense of Socrates in 399 BCE.

  • What is the good life?

    • The examined life, because “the life which is unexamined is not worth living” (pg 57).

  • How is the good life attained?

    • Examine life through asking questions

    • He who understands his own limitations is wiser than he who thinks he is wise


The apology plato1
The Apology of SufferingPlato

  • What makes this the good life?

    • In the examined life, one seeks virtue and wisdom and looks to the welfare of others

    • This is profitable both to one’s self and others


Aristotle on happiness and the life of moderation
Aristotle on Happiness and the Life of Moderation of Suffering

  • Aristotle was a student of Plato (384 – 322 BCE)

  • Tutor of Alexandor the Great

  • Aristotle was a teleologist – he believed that all existing things have a purpose

    • Teleology = “end,” “goal,” or “purpose”

    • He was concerned with the good of all humans, or eudaimonia


Nicomachean ethics aristotle
Nicomachean Ethics of SufferingAristotle

  • Every action and pursuit aims at some good

  • The things we do for the sake of a desired end are the chief good

  • Human good is the activity of the soul in accordance with virtue


Nicomachean ethics aristotle1
Nicomachean Ethics of SufferingAristotle

  • Happiness is the activity of the soul in accordance with perfect virtue

  • The nature of virtue

    • Intellectual – virtue born through teaching

    • Moral – result of habit

  • Virtue is a state of character concerned with choice

  • Moral virtue is a mean between excess and deficiency


The song of god
The Song of God of Suffering

  • How does one strive for moral perfection in morally imperfect world?

  • Hinduism

    • Dharma – order of the cosmos embodied in social and ethical law codes

    • Karma – “consequences of action.” As you sow, you will reap

    • Samsara – cycle of rebirth, death, and suffering of human life

    • Reincarnation – rebirth into new physical body


Bhagavad gita
Bhagavad-Gita of Suffering

  • The First Teaching: Arjuna’s Dejection

  • The Second Teaching: Philosophy and Spiritual Discipline


The virtue of selfishness
The Virtue of Selfishness of Suffering

  • Ethical egoism – view that people ought to do what is in their own self-interest

  • Altruism – people ought to do what is in the interest of others


The ethics of emergencies ayn rand
The Ethics of Emergencies of SufferingAyn Rand

  • “Altruism has destroyed the concept of any authentic benevolence or good will among men”

  • The moral purpose of life is the achievement of one’s own happiness

  • Values are the first concern and motive power of life