(1864-1920) PRESENTED BY : Abhinav Kumar Sharma
Max Weber – Bureaucracy In the late 1800s, Max Weber disliked that many European organizations were managed on a “personal” family-like basis and that employees were loyal to individual supervisors rather than to the organization.
He believed that organizations should be managed impersonally and that a formal organizational structure, where specific rules were followed, was important. In other words, he didn't think that authority should be based on a person's personality. He thought authority should be something that was part of a person's job and passed from individual to individual.
Max Weber – Bureaucracy Description Weber postulated that western civilization was shifting from value oriented thinking, affective action , and traditional action to technocratic thinking. He believed that civilization was changing to seek technically optimal results at the expense of emotional or humanistic content
Weber developed a set of principles for an "ideal" bureaucracy. These principles included: Fixed and official jurisdictional areas A firmly ordered hierarchy of super and subordination
Management based on written records Thorough and expert training Official activity taking priority over other activities
Management of a given organization follows stable, knowable rules. The bureaucracy was envisioned as a large machine for attaining its goals in the most efficient manner possible.
Key elements of the Max Weber management theory : Clearly defined job roles. A hierarchy of authority Standardized procedures Meticulous record-keeping Hiring employees only if they meet the specific qualifications for a job
Weber classified organizations according to the nature legitimacy: Charismatic authority, based on the sacred or outstanding characteristic of the individual. Traditional authority: essentially a respect for custom. Rational legal authority, which was based on a code or set of rules.
Weber believed that all bureaucracies have the following characteristics: A well-defined hierarchy. All positions within a bureaucracy are structured in a way that permits the higher positions to supervise and control the lower positions. This clear chain of command facilitates control and order throughout the organization. Division of labor and specialization. All responsibilities in an organization are specialized so that each employee has the necessary expertise to do a particular task.
Rules and regulations. Standard operating procedures govern all organizational activities to provide certainty and facilitate coordination. Impersonal relationships between managers and employees. Managers should maintain an impersonal relationship with employees so that favoritism and personal prejudice do not influence decisions
Competence. Competence, not “who you know,” should be the basis for all decisions made in hiring, job assignments, and promotions in order to foster ability and merit as the primary characteristics of a bureaucratic organization. Records. A bureaucracy needs to maintain complete files regarding all its activities
CONCLUSION • Power should held by bureaucrats and administrators.