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Challenging Segregation

Challenging Segregation

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Challenging Segregation

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  1. Challenging Segregation

  2. Challenges • 1959-Sit-ins started with just 4 students • 4 months 54 cities and 9 states • Take matters into their own hands • Worried NAACP & SCLC • Ella Baker “Students had the right to direct their own affairs and even make their own mistakes.” Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) -Key role in desegregating public facilities -Getting people to vote -Very Dangerous

  3. Freedom Riders Goal  Integrate bus terminals

  4. Kennedy & Civil Rights • Promised to support movement • Helped him win key states • Bobby got MLK out of jail • Cautious • Created the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity • Appointed several African-Americans

  5. Kennedy’s Support for Civil Rights • Bobby publically took care of things • Freedom Rider support • Kennedy wanted nonviolent action • Meeting with Khrushchev • Made a deal with a Mississippi Senator • Thurgood Marshal recommended NAACP’s legal defense fund • After all this, Kennedy tightened regulations • 1962- segregation in interstate travel had come to an end

  6. More Challenges • James Meredith • 1962- University of Mississippi denied his entry • Governor physically blocked his way “Never! We will never surrender to the evil and illegal forces of tyranny.” Governor Barnett • 500 troops sent in • SEVERAL THOUSAND • Graduated

  7. Birmingham • Distractions for Kennedy • Demonstrations • King arrested (Bull Connor) • “Letter from Birmingham Jail” • Eloquent defense of nonviolent protests • Higher moral law • Page 936 • All played out TV • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0lD37bq8YI

  8. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Announced on June 11, 1963 “…then who among us would be content to have his skin changed and stand in his place?”JFK • March on Washington • August 28th 200, 000 demonstrators • “I have a dream…” • Build dignity • Momentum

  9. Civil Rights Bill Becomes Law • An issue for the Senate • Filibuster • Cloture (forces the vote) • Kennedy assassinated • LBJ pushed it through • 87 days of filibuster (4 votes over) • July 2, 1964 Civil Rights Bill becomes law • Segregation illegal • Equal access to facilities • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

  10. Voting Rights • 24th Amendment • Selma March • Majority of population- 3% registered to vote • Sheriff Clark terrorized African-Americans • “march for freedom” (Selma to Washington) • “Bloody Sunday” • Voting Rights Act 1965 Segregation was outlawed and federal laws against discrimination