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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. VENTILATION & RESPIRATION. VENTILATION. Ventilation = Breathing – NO gas exchange. Inspiration & Expiration Steps. Diaphragm contracts & lowers. Intercostals contract & lift ribs. Lungs expand. Increased volume in lungs = decreased pressure in lungs.

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the respiratory system

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

VENTILATION & RESPIRATION

ventilation
VENTILATION
  • Ventilation = Breathing – NO gas exchange
  • Inspiration & Expiration Steps
  • Diaphragm contracts & lowers
  • Intercostals contract & lift ribs
  • Lungs expand
  • Increased volume in lungs = decreased pressure in lungs
  • Air moves in (high to low pressure)
  • Expiration = opposite!
ventilation visuals
VENTILATION VISUALS

Be sure to look at these sites: copy & paste the URL’s

http://oac.med.jhmi.edu/res_phys/Encyclopedia/AlveolarPressure/AlveolarPressure.HTML

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_11.htm

ventilation visuals1
VENTILATION VISUALS

Be sure to look at these sites: type in the URL’s

http://oac.med.jhmi.edu/res_phys/Encyclopedia/AlveolarPressure/AlveolarPressure.HTML

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_11.htm

lung volume capacities
Lung Volume & Capacities

Assignment

  • Use text pg 497
  • Label all terms on chart (you can use letters)
  • BRIEFLY define all terms in space around chart
  • Define “Dead Space”

☆ This will be graded next class with an open-note quiz - you will not turn it in!

respiration
RESPIRATION
  • Respiration = actual exchange of gases
  • Types:
  • External = diffusion of O2 CO2 between alveoli blood
  • Internal = diffusion of O2 CO2 between blood cells
  • Cellular = cells use O2 to burn food (glucose) & produce CO2 as waste

Copy & Paste this URL!

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_96.htm

transportation of gases oxygen
TRANSPORTATION OF GASES: Oxygen
  • 98% of O2 in blood is bound to Hemoglobin (Hb)

Hb + O2 HbO2

  • How tight the Hb holds on to O2 depends on:
      • pH
      • Temperature
      • Amount of CO2 & O2 present
  • Ex: In muscles

at exercise

transportation of gases carbon dioxide
TRANSPORTATION OF GASES: Carbon Dioxide
  • Can be transported 1 of 3 ways:
  • Dissolved in the plasma – 7%
  • Directly bound to Hb – 23%
  • Converted to carbonic acid & then bicarbonate ion on the RBC – 70%
  • CO2 + H20  H2CO3 HCO3- +H+

☆ Respiratory Rates are VERY susceptible to levels of CO2 in the blood: too high = too acidic – body response = increased breathing

respiratory disorders
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

VOCABULARY

  • Apnea = absence of breathing
  • Dyspnea = difficulty breathing
  • Hypoxia = decreased O2 to cells

☆ Lung Cancer = #1 cause of cancer death in U.S. & >90% of all cases are b/c of smoking!

respiratory disorders1
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
  • Emphysema – degeneration of alveolar walls (permanent)

Normal Alveoli

respiratory disorders2
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
  • Asthma – spasm of bronchioles
respiratory disorders3
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
  • Pneumonia – viral/bacterial infection of alveoli walls
respiratory disorders4
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
  • Pulmonary edema – fluid in alveoli - usually from another condition (like a failing heart!)
respiratory disorders5
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
  • Cystic Fibrosis – genetic disorder fills lungs with mucus – death by age 30 usually!
respiratory disorders6
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
  • Tuberculosis(TB) – bacterial infection- scarring of lungs/death

☆ #1 infectious disease killer in world

☆ > 2 billion infected & becoming resistant to meds!

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