Main Issues of Translation Studies Class Discussion 4 Translation Theory- 1 TEFL 496 2011-2012 Spring Merve TURHAN Free Powerpoint Templates
Meaning of Translation ??? • The general subject field • The product • The process
The concept of translation: • What is the aim of translation? • *To introduce the reader to major concepts and models of translation studies. • *Erases the borders between disciplines and research. • *Builds bridges between the humanities and the sciences to respond to the needs of a globalized world. • * Destroys language walls.
According to Jacobson, translation can be categorized as follows: • Intralingual translation, or “rewording”: • an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language. • When does it occur ??? • When we rephrase an expression or text in the same language to explain or clarify sth we have said or written.
Interlingual translation, or “translation proper”: • an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language. • It is a traditional translation.
Intersemiotic translation, or “transmutation”: • an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign systems. • When does it occur ??? • into music, film or painting.
What is translation studies ??? Translation studies is an interdiscipline containing elements of social science and the humanities , dealing with the systematic study of the theory, the description and the application of translation, interpreting or both these activities.
a wide variety of key themes in international translation conferences: translation and training translator (Bratislava,Slovakia) literary translation (Mons, Belgium) research models in translation studies (UMIST, Manchester, UK) gender and translation (Norwich, UK) translation as/at the crossroads of culture (Lisbon, Portugal) translation and globalization (Tangiers, Morocco) legal translation (Geneva, Switzerland) translation and meaning (Maastrict, the Netherlands and Lodz, Poland) the history of translation (Leon, Spain) transadaptation and pedagogical challenges (Turku, Finland) translation-focused comparative literature (Pretoria, South Africa and Salvador, Brazil)
A brief history of the discipline: • Translation had been an element of language learning in modern language courses. • From the late eighteenth century to the 1960s, language learning in secondary schools in many countires had come to be dominated by what was known as the grammar-translation method. (Latin and Greek) • Translation exercises help students to learn a new language or reading a foreing language text.
Then, the grammar translation method fell into increasing disrepute. WHY? Rise of the direct method & communicative approach to English language teaching.
Translation was promoted in universities by the translation workshop concept. Translation workshops were first established in the universities of Iowa and Princeton. These workshops were based on practical criticism approach. They seemed as a platform for the introduction of new translations into target culture and for the discussion of finer principles of the translation process and finer principles of understanding a text. Besides translation workshops, there was a comparative literature. Literature is studied and compared transnationally and transculturally.
Another area was ‘Contrastive Analysis.’ This study is identifying general and specific differences between two languages. The contrastive approach influenced other studies, such as Vinay and Darbelnet’s (1958) and Catford’s (1965) studies. Although it is useful, contrastive analysis does not incorporate sociocultural and pragmatic factors.
Another area was ‘Scientific’ approach. This is more systematic and mostly linguistic-oriented. There are several classic examples. i.e: Alfred Malblanc (1963) did the same for translation between French and German.
The Holmes/ Toury ‘map’: This framework describes what translation studies covers.
Descriptive translation studies has three possible foci: 1.Product- oriented DTS examines existing translation. 2.Function-oriented DTS is a study of context rather than text. It includes sociocultural situation. 3.Process-oriented DTS is concerned with psychology of translation. i.e. It is concerned with trying to find out what happens in the mind of a translator.
1.Medium-restricted theories subdivide according to translation by machine and humans. 2.Area-restricted theories are restricted to specific languages or groups of languages and cultures. 3.Rank- restricted theories are linguistic theories that have been restricted to a specific level of the word or sentence. 4.Text- type restricted theories look at specific discourse types. e.g. Literary, business, and technical translation. 5.Time- restricted theories are self-explanatory. These theories and translations are limited according to specific time periods. 6.Problem- restricted theories can refer to specific problems.
1.Translator training: teaching methods, testing techniques, curriculum design. 2.Translation aids: dictionarioes, grammar s and information technology. 3.Translation criticism: the evaluation of translations, including the marking of students translation and the reviews of published translations. 4.Translation policy: should occupy in the language teaching and learning curriculum.
Aim of this chapter and a guide to chapters: Chapter 1 explains the discipline of translation studies.It aims to bring together and summarize the major strands of translation studies. It also aims to provide a theoretical framework into which professional translator adn trainee translators can place their own practical teaching. Chapter 2 describes some of the major issues and some of the classic writings on translation over the years. Chapter 3 deals with the concepts of meaning, equivalence and ‘equivalent effect.’ Chapter 4 explains a taxonomy of the linguistic changes which occur in translation.
Chapter 5 analyzed translation according to text type and function in the target language culture. Chapter 6 examines translation as communication within a sociocultural context. (development of discourse-oriented approaches) Chapter 7 investigates systems theories and the field of target-oriented ‘descriptive’ translation studies. Chapter 8 investigates varieties of cultural studies approaches in translation studies. Chapter 9 desribes the role of literary translators and publishers. Chapter 10 investigates a selection of philosophical issues of language and translation. Chapter 11 presents an interdisciplinary approach to translation studies.