Day 1 – Introduction to Biology Unit 1 – Introduction to Biology
Agenda • Introductions • Review Course Outline • Textbook Deposits = $40 ASAP • Today’s Topic – What is Biology? Unit 1: Understanding Biological Inheritance
What is Biology? • Biology is the study of life. • Characteristics & behaviours • Classification • Many biological fields … botanists, zoologists, anthropologists Unit 1: Understanding Biological Inheritance
Why It’s Important • Biologists seek answers to questions about living things. • Biologists use many methods to answer their questions about life. • During this course, you will gain an understanding of the questions and answers of biology, and how the answers are learned. Unit 1: Understanding Biological Inheritance
Biologists Study the Diversity of Life • Biologists study the interactions of the environment. • Biologists study problems and propose solutions. Unit 1: Understanding Biological Inheritance
What is Life? • difficult to define • 9 Signs of life … Unit 1: Understanding Biological Inheritance
Characteristics of Living Things • Biologists have formulated a list of characteristics by which we can recognize living things. • Only when something has all of the characteristics can it be considered living: • Have an orderly structure • Produce offspring • Grow and develop • Adjust to changes in the environment
9 Characteristics of Life • living things are made up of one or more cells, which are the smallest units that can be said to be alive • living things are highly organized and contain many complex chemical substances • living things use energy • living things have a definite form and a limited size living things have a limited life span living things grow living things respond to changes in the environment living things are able to reproduce groups of living things evolve, or change over time
Living things are organized • Structure is one of the first signs of life. • Composed of one or more cells. • Each cell contains the genetic makeup (DNA) that provides all of the information needed to control the organism’s life processes. • Whether an organism is made up of one cell or billions of cells, all of its parts function together in an orderly, living system.
Living things make more living things • Reproduction = the production of offspring • Organisms don’t live forever, so for life to continue, they must replace themselves. • Reproduction is essential for the continuation of the organism’s species • Species = group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature
Living things change during their lives • An organism’s life begins as a single cell, and over time, it grows and takes on the characteristics of is species. • Growth results in an increase in the amount of living material and the formation of new structures. • All organisms grow (even single-celled organisms). • Development = all of the changes that take place during the life of an organism.
Living things adjust to their surroundings • Organisms live in a constant interface with their surroundings. • Environment – includes the air, water, weather, temperature, any other living organism in the area, and many other factors. • Anything in an organism’s external or internal environment that causes the organism to react is a stimulus. • A reaction to a stimulus is called a response.
Living things adjust to their surrounding • Homeostasis – the regulation of an organism’s internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for its survival. • This is a process that occurs in all living things. • Maintain internal temperature necessary for life • Living things reproduce themselves, grow and develop, respond to external stimuli, and maintain homeostasis by using energy. • Energy is the ability to cause change. • Organisms get their energy from food.
Living things adapt and evolve • Any inherited structure, behaviour, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring is called an adaptation. • Inherited from previous generations. • Some are more suited to new conditions than others. • Evolution is the gradual change in a species through adaptations over time.
Section Assessment • What are some important reasons for studying biology? • Identify and describe how an organism could respond to an external stimulus. Describe a response to an internal stimulus. • Why is energy required for living things? How do living things obtain energy? • Describe how biologists’ research contributes to our understanding of the world.
The Life Project • http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/frans_lanting_s_lyrical_nature_photos.html