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Biology End of Course Test (EOCT) Study Guide. Venecia R Stewart, Ed.S . Honors & General Biology Teacher Campbell High School. C haracteristics of L iving T hings. Made of one or more cells Unicellular-made of one cell Multicellular-made of more than one cell

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biology end of course test eoct study guide

Biology End of Course Test (EOCT) Study Guide

Venecia R Stewart, Ed.S.

Honors & General Biology Teacher

Campbell High School

c haracteristics of l iving t hings
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Made of one or more cells
    • Unicellular-made of one cell
    • Multicellular-made of more than one cell
  • Displays organization
  • Grows and develops
  • Reproduces
    • Asexual-organism reproduces by itself
    • Sexual-organism has to have two different cells from different organisms
  • Responds to stimuli-Ex. Smell, sound, taste, sight, light, heat
  • Requires energy-Ex. Metabolism- the sum total of all of the chemical reactions that take place in the body
  • Maintains homeostasis-constant internal temperature
  • Adaptations/Evolve over time
two parts of an experiment
Two Parts of an Experiment
  • Control Group
    • Standard for comparison
    • Does not receive the variable
    • Receives the placebo
  • Experimental Group
    • Receives the variable
    • Only test for one variable at a time
independent vs dependent variable
Independent vsDependent variable
  • Independent variable—one factor should only be tested at one time in an experiment
    • (the one that “I” change); can be manipulated
  • Dependent variable—the result from the independent variable
  • The outcome of the experiment
scientific method
Scientific Method
  • Hypothesis
    • Educated guess
    • Tentative explanation about an event or occurrence in nature
  • Theory
    • A hypothesis that has been proven over and over again
    • State and Observe the Problem
    • Form a hypothesis
    • Test the hypothesis or Experiment
    • Record & Analyze the Data
    • Form a conclusion
    • Replicate Your Work
l evels of organization
Levels of Organization

Cellular Level

  • Atom-basic unit of matter
  • Molecule
  • Organelles
  • cell (smallest unit of living matter
  • Tissue
  • Organ
  • Organ system
  • Organism
levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • Ecological Level
  • Individual
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
    • Biotic factors
    • Abiotic factors
  • Biome
  • Biosphere
  • Mutualism—both organisms benefit from a relationship.
  • Example—bird living on top of a rhino. The bird eats the insects off of the rhino and the rhino protects the bird.

Commensalism—when one organism benefits from a relationship, and the other is not helped or harmed. Example—bird living in a tree.

Example-barnacles on a whale.

  • Parasitism—one organism is helped and the other is harmed
  • Example—a tapeworm takes all of the host’s food
  • Example-heartworms in a dog’s heart
food chain
Food Chain
  • Food Chain
    • Simplest feeding relationship
    • Organisms are arranged in a linear sequence
food web
Food Web
  • A food web is a complex series of food chains.
ecological terms
Ecological Terms
  • Detritus-is non-living particulate organic material. It typically includes the bodies or fragments of dead organisms as well as fecalmaterial.
  • Saprophytes-An organism, especially a fungus or bacterium, that grows on and derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter.
  • Decomposers-break down decaying or dead organisms and return their nutrients back into the soil; also known as saprotrophs
  • Detritivore-An organism that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter, returning essential nutrients to the ecosystem. Detritivores include microorganisms
  • Scavenger-feeds on dead and decaying organic matter present in its habitat
chlorofluorocarbons cfcs
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  • Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane
  • Destroys the ozone layer
  • “Biomagnification is the process whereby the tissue concentrations of a contaminant increase as it passes up the food chain through two or more trophic levels.” - Nowell and others, 1999
  • Bioaccumulation – “General term describing a process by which chemicals are taken up by an organism either directly from exposure to a contaminated medium or by consumption of food containing the chemical.” – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010
trophic levels
Trophic Levels

The bottom of the energy pyramid is the plants/producers which are autotrophs. As you move up the food chain, you have consumers (primary eats the plants and are herbivores, secondary eats plants and animals and are omnivores, and the tertiary consumers are usually carnivores and are known as top predators.)

energy pyramid
Energy Pyramid
  • 90% of energy is lost to heat and only 10% of the energy moves up the pyramid. That means that the top predator gets very little energy, but primary consumers that eat the plants get a lot more energy.
describe the water carbon phosphorus and nitrogen cycles
Describe the water, carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen cycles.
  • All matter in the universe is neither destroyed nor created. Nutrients on earth are recycled as well.
primary succession
Primary Succession.
  • Primary succession is when there is just rock, and no soil for the plants to grow on
  • It is a very slow process
  • Lichens and moss (pioneer species) are examples of the first organisms to grow.
secondary succession
Secondary Succession
  • Secondary succession is when there is soil left by a natural disaster. For instance, a tornado or flood does not wash away all soil, giving succession a base for growing plants.
aquatic terrestrial biomes
Aquatic & Terrestrial Biomes
  • Marine—salt water biome that covers most of the earth.
  • Freshwater—lakes, rivers, and streams
  • Tundra—cold, no trees, has a layer of permafrost. Canada, Alaska, Northern Russia;
  • Taiga—cold, northern forest that has conifers. Also called boreal forest. Canada, Alaska, etc. Animals include reindeer, moose, etc.
  • Desert—hot during the day, and cold at night. Very little to no rain. Northern Africa, South Western United States
  • Grassland—Midwest United States. Good for farming, very little trees, herbivore and grazing animals are abundant. Moderate rainfall and moderate to cold temperatures.
  • Temperate forest—Georgia is an example of temperate forest in the North Georgia Mountains. Deer, fox, raccoons, bobcats. Moderate to cold temperatures and moderate rainfall.
  • Tropical rain forest—very rainy. Biomass is in the trees. Poor soil. Abundance of animals and the most diverse species. South America is an example; usually has a temperature of 25 C.
c arrying c apacity
Carrying Capacity
  • The carrying capacity is the maximum number of organism that an environment’s resources can sustain.
  • If the population exceeds the carrying capacity, then individuals will die because of lack of resources.
dispersion patterns
Dispersion Patterns

Random occurs when

individuals are spaced,

in a patternless, unpre-

dictable way. Dandelions

and white-tailed deer

are examples.

Uniform is an even pattern of

Dispersion that results in

interactions among

individuals of a population.

Creosote bush and black

Bears are examples

Clumped is when individuals

are aggregated into patches,

is the most common in nature.

Elephants and the American

Bison are clumped in groups or


  • Indigenous species
    • A species that naturally occurs in a particular environment or ecosystem
  • Introduced species
    • A species that humans have placed into an ecosystem or community (either accidentally or intentionally) in which it does not naturally occur.
density independent and d ensity d ependent factors
Density-Independent and Density DependentFactors
  • Density independent factors are abiotic factors that occur regardless of the size of the population. Examples are hurricanes, floods, and other weather factors.
  • Density dependent factors are biotic factors that depends on the size of the population. Competition, disease, and predation are examples of these factors.
competition how does competition effect a population
CompetitionHow does competition effect a population?

Competition can affect population size. The larger the population, the greater the competition will occur. Organisms will compete for space, food, and mates.

what is demography how does birth rate death rate immigration and emigration effect demography
What is demography? How does birth rate, death rate, immigration, and emigration effect demography?
  • Demography is the study of the human


  • Birth rate—increases population
  • Death rate—decreases population
  • Immigration—organisms coming INTO a

population will increase the population size

  • Emigration—organisms EXITING a population

will decrease the population size

describe the structure of an atom
Describe the structure of an atom.
  • Protons (positive charge)
  • Neutrons (no charge) make up the dense nucleus of the atom. Neutrons and protons have an atomic size of 1
  • Electrons (negative charge) orbit in the shells around the nucleus. Electrons are very small in comparison to protons and neutrons and have a mass of 0.
macromolecules organic compounds
Macromolecules/Organic Compounds
  • Name Subunit Function Examples
  • Lipids TriglyceridesLong term storage of energy Fats, waxes, oils

Make up membranes

  • Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Short term energy Sugars Main source of energy Starches
  • ProteinsAmino Acids Muscle building Hemoglobin Storage, transport

Hormones, enzymes

  • Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Stores/transmits genetic informationDNA, RNA
e nzymes how do they work
Enzymes? How do they work?
  • Enzymes are proteins. They are biological catalysts. An enzyme will bind to a substrate to speed up reactions. The enzymes will not be used up in the reaction. It just lowers the activation energy needed to start a reaction.
  • HINT! Remember: reactants  products
describe the properties of water and how they support life on earth
Describe the properties of water and how they support life on Earth.
  • Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, constituting about 75% of the planet's surface. In nature it exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent.
  • Water is a polar molecule because the oxygen side is slightly negative and the hydrogen side is slightly positive. The three atoms are constantly at a “tug of war” for their electrons. This polarity helps water to bind to other substances.
types of bonds
Types of Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds-share their electrons, are strong bonds
  • Hydrogen bonds-are weak bonds; hold nitrogenous bases together
  • Ionic bonds-transfer electrons
  • Peptide bonds-join amino acids together
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotesare simple cells with no nucleus. An example would be bacteria.
  • Eukaryoteshave a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. An example would be plant and animal cells.
f unctions of the following organelles
Functions of the following organelles:
  • Nucleus—the center of the cell that controls all activities. “The Brain”
  • Ribosome—site of protein synthesis. On the Rough ER
  • Smooth ER-synthesizes lipids
  • Mitochondria—converts sugar into ATP for use in the cell. “Powerhouse” of the cell
  • Chloroplast—converts sunlight into glucose (sugar) for energy “Chlorophyll FILLS the chloroplast” Only in plant cells. Where photosynthesis takes place in the leaves.
  • Cell (Plasma) Membrane—a semi-permeable structure that regulates what comes in and out of the cell, “Gatekeeper of the Cell”
  • Golgi Apparatus-packages, modifies, secretes, and ships proteins to other parts of the cell
  • Cell Wall—Only in plant cells. This is a rigid structure that is outside the cell membrane. It provides structure/shape and protection.
  • Lysosome—Uses enzymes to clean the cell of worn out parts or waste. “Cleans like Lysol!”
  • Vacuole—Mainly in plant cells. Stores water, minerals, and food. Usually the largest structure in the plant cell. If the vacuole is filled, then the plant appears normal. If the vacuole is empty, the plant leave appear to be wilted.
  • Cilia—hairlikestructures on the outside of the cell that help the cell move and capture food
  • Flagella—one long hairlike structure that helps the cell move. Example is sperm cells.
  • Cytoplasm—a jelly like substance within a cell that fills the space. All reactions in the cell occur here.
Explain the difference between hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solutions and how this effects movement across cell membranes.
  • Hypotonic solutions—There is more water (solvent) on the outside of the cell then on the inside. The result is water rushes into the cell making it swell and possibly burst. “You swell up like a hippo in a hypotonic solution.
  • Hypertonic solutions—There is more water on the inside of the cell than on the outside. The result is that all of the water rushes out making the cell shrink.
  • Isotonic solution—concentrations in the cell and outside the cell are equally. There is no NET movement of concentration.
passive transport
Passive Transport
  • Passive transport—transport across a cell membrane that requires no energy. The molecules move down its concentration gradient from high to low! (like rolling down a hill!)

Examples of passive transport—

Osmosis—diffusion of WATERacross a

selectively permeable membrane

Diffusion—passive transport mainly of gases

Facilitated diffusion-passive transport of

substances using a carrier protein

active transport
Active Transport
  • Active transport—transport across a cell membrane AGAINST a substances concentration gradient. (like pushing a boulder uphill!!)

Examples of active transport—

Endocytosis—bringing a substance INTO a cell ENTERING=ENDO”

Phagocytosis—cell eating

Pinocytosis—cell drinking

Exocytosis—bringing a substance OUT of a cell “EXITING=EXO”

Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellularrespiration. What are the chemical equations for each?
  • Photosynthesisoccurs in plant leaves in the chloroplasts. It is a process in which sunlight is converted to sugar

6CO2+ 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6(sugar) + 6O2

  • Cellular Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of a cell. It converts glucose to make ATP

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2+ 6H2O + 36 ATP

stages of mitosis
Stages of Mitosis
  • Prophase—nuclear envelope & nucleolus break down and chromosomes appear
  • Metaphase—chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
  • Anaphase—sister chromosomes are pulled apart by spindle fibers
  • Telophase-chromosomes have reached opposite poles, nuclear envelope, nucleolus and nuclear membrane reappear
  • Cytokinesis—two INDENTICAL daughter cells are made by the division of the cytoplasm
  • Meiosis goes through two phases of PMAT to produce FOUR GENETICALLY DIFFERENT CELLS. The purpose of meiosis is to produce sex cells, or gametes—sperm and eggs.
  • Female gametes, or _OVUM___, fuse with male gametes, or _SPERM__, to create a _ZYGOTE__.
somatic cell vs gametes
Somatic Cell vs Gametes
  • Somatic cell is the same as a body cell; ex nerve cell, skin cell
  • Has a diploid chromosome number
  • Gametes are sex cells; ex sperm and egg cells
  • Have a haploid chromosome number
who was gregor mendel what were his three laws of heredity
Who was Gregor Mendel? What were his three laws of heredity?
  • GregorMendel was the “Father of Genetics”. He studied pea plants to formulate his laws of heredity.
  • The law of dominance—the dominant trait will always show up in offspring
  • The law of segregation—there are two alleles for each trait, but they will separate individually into the offspring.
  • The law of independent assortment—traits are expressed separately (example—just because of you have brown hair does not mean you have brown eyes!)
distinguish between dominant and recessive heterozygous and homozygous genotype and phenotype
Distinguish between dominant and recessive; heterozygous and homozygous; genotype and phenotype.
  • Dominant traits are usually expressed and cover up the recessive allele.
  • Recessivetraits are usually not expressed and can be covered up by the dominant trait. Only two recessive alleles will show up.
  • Heterozygousalleles consist of two different alleles (one dominant and one recessive Rr)
  • Homozygous alleles are two same alleles (rr or RR)
  • Genotypeis the actually gene code (GG, Gg, gg)
  • Phenotypeis the physical expression of the trait (brown hair, long necks, etc)
sexual vs asexual reproduction
Sexual vs Asexual Reproduction
  • Asexual reproduction produces the same organism.
  • Sexual reproduction gives a combination of two different genes, with each parent donating half their chromosomes to its offspring. This gives the offspring an advantage of not having disorders and other genetic abnormalities. They have the possibility of getting the strongest traits from both parents.
dna molecule
DNA Molecule
  • It is a double helix structure made up a sugar, a phosphate and nitrogen bases.
  • The bases are ATGC. Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine. A pairs with T, C pairs with G
rna m olecule
RNA Molecule
  • A single stranded molecule that carrying genetic information. It codes for proteins.
  • The bases are AUGC. Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil. A pairs with U and C pairs with G
dna replication why is dna replication necessary when does it occur
DNA replicationWhy is DNA replication necessary? When does it occur?
  • DNA replication occurs in the S phase of interphase. It is a semi-conservative process in which the newly formed dna strands has one strand of the original double helix
  • One strand of DNA is saved and one strand of DNA is used to make a copy
how does dna code for a protein
How does DNA code for a protein?
  • DNA copies itself. mRNA reads the copied DNA by transcription. tRNA codes this piece of genetic material by translation. This final code is read to make an amino acid.
What are the major types of mutations? How do mutations affect protein synthesis? List some common mutagens.
  • Deletionwhere a base is left out.
  • Insertionin which a base is put into the code.
  • Substitutionin which two bases are swapped.
  • In all of this, the bases will be read in a different order and a mutation will occur. A mutation is a permanent change in DNA.
  • Common mutagens can be UV light, pollutants, chemicals (drugs, alcohol, etc.)
distinguish between incomplete dominance and codominance describe sex linked inheritance
Distinguish between incompletedominance and codominance. Describe sex-linkedinheritance.
  • Incomplete dominance—where two traits blend to form an “in-between” trait. Example: a red flower and a white flower could blend to form a pink flower.
  • Codominance—where two alleles are equally dominant. Therefore the result is both alleles showing up. Example: a black cat and a white cat have black and white striped kittens. Spots or stripes!
  • Sex-Linked Traits—a trait (usually disorder) that only occurs on the X chromosome. Therefore a female can be a carrier (XhX) because the second allele will mask the trait. A male cannot be a carrier and will always show the trait XhY. The Y does not cover it up.
charles darwin
Charles Darwin
  • Father of Evolution
  • Traveled from 1831-1836
  • Ship was the “HMS Beagle”
  • Famous book was “On the Origin of Species”
geologic time eras
Geologic Time Eras
  • There were four geologic time eras
  • Precambrian is the earliest
  • Paleozoic-animals appeared
  • Mesozoic-dinosaurs became extinct
  • Cenozoic-humans appeared
name and describe the 6 different types of fossils
Name and describe the 6 different types of fossils?
  • Casts—external view
  • Mold—external view
  • Trace fossils—footprints or other animal tracks that animals leave behind
  • Imprints—an outline of an organism (usually a plant) that is left in the sediment and hardened
  • Petrified fossils—best known, like dinosaur bone deposits. The bones are replaced by minerals and are hardened, but leaving scientists a great view of the bone structure.
  • Amber preserved and frozen fossils—whole specimens and soft tissue is preserved.
radioactive dating half life
Radioactive Dating/Half-life
  • Radioactive Dating is the process of determining the age of an object by measuring the amount of a radioactive substance it contains
  • Half-life is the length of time it takes ½ of a substance to decay
spontaneous g eneration was disproven twice
Spontaneous Generation was disproven twice
  • Spontaneous generation is the idea that living things came from nonliving things.
  • Francisco Rediput rotting meat into a closed flask and maggots did not appear.
  • Louis Pasteur created a similar experiment that show that no living organisms would grow in a closed environment.
lamarck darwin
Lamarck & Darwin
  • Lamarck believed in “use and disuse”. He believed that if you didn’t use a feature, it would diminish in size or you would lose it
  • Darwin created his theories of natural selection which stated that the best traits or adaptations would be passed on to offspring
  • Survival of the fittest stated that only the healthiest, best adapted organisms would survive and reproduce
natural selection vs artificial selection
Natural Selection vs Artificial Selection
  • Natural selection is when organisms adapt to their environment
  • Artificial selection is when organisms are bred for specific traits
  • James Hutton
  • Father of Geology
  • Suggested that the earth was much older and that processes occurring in the present were the same processes that had operated in the past, and would be the processes that operate in the future.
  • Sir Charles Lyell whose Principles of Geology (1830) popularized the concept of uniformitarianism
  • Catastrophism-stated that only violent disasters could modify the surface of the earth
  • Is not the current theory of Earth’s history
  • Uniformitarianism is the accepted theory
three t ypes of natural s election
ThreeTypes of Natural Selection
  • Stabilizing Selection-- The extremes are selected against.

Example: height; mostly beings tend to the average height- not too many really short ones or really tall ones.

  • Directional selection-- One extreme value is selected for.

Example: speed; faster is always better so a population will tend to get faster over time.

  • Disruptive selection-- The extremes are both selected for.

This type of selection is not as common as the first two. Example: Prey-type animal with distinctive markings which the predators know will over time move away from the norm in both directions.


A cladogram is a phylogenetic tree.Phylogeny-is the study of evolutionary biology depicts the evolutionary relationships among organisms

analogous structures
  • Analogous structures are derived from organisms living in similar environments but they are unrelated to each other
patterns of evolution
Patterns of Evolution
  • Divergent evolution is the process of two or more related species becoming more and more dissimilar.
  • The red fox and the kit fox provide an example of two species that have undergone divergent evolution. The red fox lives in mixed farmlands and forests, where its red color helps it blend in with surrounding trees. The kit fox lives on the plains and in the deserts, where its sandy color helps conceal it from prey and predators.
divergent evolution adaptive radiation
Divergent Evolution/Adaptive Radiation
  • Related species
  • Different environment
  • Different adaptations
  • Develop new species
  • Diverge-move apart
convergent evolution
Convergent Evolution
  • Convergent evolution means unrelated species become more and more similar in appearance as they adapt to the same kind of environment
convergent evolution1
Convergent Evolution
  • Unrelated species
  • Similar environments
  • Similar adaptations (more alike)
  • Converge or come together
  • Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  • Do Kings Play Cards On Fine Glass Stools?
  • Did King Philip Come Over For Gumbo Soup?
what are the six kingdoms of biology and what are the characteristics of each
What are the six kingdoms of biology and what are the characteristics of each?
  • Archaeabacteria—bacteria that lives in extreme environments (heat, chemicals) also a member of the kingdom Monera. Unicellular and prokaryotic
  • Eubacteria—bacteria that is common and lives on or in most organisms, also a member of the kingdom Monera. Unicellular and prokaryotic
  • Protista—A mixed category of most one cell organisms. Some are animal-like, plant-like (because they perform photosynthesis), or fungus-like (decomposers). Eukaryotic
  • Fungi—decomposers that are multicellular organisms. These organisms break down decaying material and help recycle it in the environment. Eukaryotic
  • Plantae—multicellular organisms that are autotrophs and perform photosynthesis. They can reproduce by asexual or sexual reproduction. Eukaryotic
  • Animalia—multicellular and complex organisms that mostly reproduce by sexual reproduction and most are heterotrophs. Eukaryotic
viruses vs bacteria
  • Bacteria are living organisms and a virus is not living.
  • Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics if they are used repetitively
  • A virus is not living because it cannot survive independent of a host organism.
  • Viruses can reproduce but only inside a host organism.
  • Viruses are treated with vaccinations

Viruses have two cycles. The lysogenic cycles occur when the virus is a part of the host’s body, but is not actively reproducing. The lytic cycle is when the virus is active and reproducing and effecting the host.

describe the common structure of fungi and its modes of reproduction
Describe the common structure of fungi and its modes of reproduction.
  • Most have exoskeletons that make them very structured. They can reproduce by sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction by binary fission. This occurs when the organism splits in half to make two new organisms.
v ascular vs n onvascular plants
Vascularvs Nonvascular plants
  • Vascular plants have a root and “vein” system that can carry water and minerals throughout the plants. These include trees and all plants that aren’t mosses.
  • Nonvascular plants do not have a water transport system and are very low to the ground. These include moss.
monocot vs dicot
Monocot vs Dicot
  • Leaf has parallel veins
  • Embryo with single seed pack
  • Flower parts in multiples of three
  • Stem vascular bundles scattered
  • Embryo with two seed packs
  • Leaf is net-veined
  • Flower parts in multiples of four or five
  • Stem vascular bundles in a ring
how do plants reproduce
How do plants reproduce?
  • Asexually by splitting off or having runners. (Grafting or budding)
  • Sexually by producing ovum (seeds) and sperm in the form of pollen. (Cross pollination)
  • Animals help spread the seeds and pollen in their feces or fur. (Vector pollination)
  • Wind and water can also help plants spread their seeds.
  • The pollen falls on the stigma of the same plant. (Self-pollination)
tropism is any type of cause effect plant movement
Tropismis any type of cause-effect plant movement.
  • Phototropism- is plant movement toward a light.
  • Thigmotropism is a movement in which an organism moves or grows in response to touch or contact stimuli. The prefix thigmo- comes from the Greek for touch.
  • Geotropism-the growth of a living organism in response to gravity, as the downward growth of plant roots.
  • Hydrotropism is the growth response of a plant to water. Roots exhibit positive hydrotropism.
  • Chemotropism is the growth response of a plant to a particular chemical. Roots grow toward useful minerals in the soil but away from acids.
the common phyla of the a nimal k ingdom
The common phyla of the AnimalKingdom
  • 1. There are 9 major invertebrate (no backbone) phyla: (from simple to complex)
  • Porifera(sponges)
  • Radiata (Jellyfish)
  • Platyhelmeminthes (flatworms)
  • Nematoda (round worms)
  • Rotifera (rotifers)
  • Mollusca (mollusks—clams, oysters)
  • Annelida (segmented worms)
  • Arthropoda (BIGGEST GROUP! insects, etc…exoskeleton)
  • Echinodermata (starfish, et al.)
  • 2. There is one phylum of vertebrates (backbone), Chordate. Chordates have a spinal column and nerves to help it sense. These are usually higher order animals.