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Biology Warm-Ups SEMESTER 2

Biology Warm-Ups SEMESTER 2

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Biology Warm-Ups SEMESTER 2

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  1. Biology Warm-UpsSEMESTER 2 Biology 2012-2013 Ms. Chabot

  2. Add the Florida Biology Standard to the top of the page. • Write out and answer the question. • Each Friday I will check your Composition Book for the Warm-Ups done during the week.

  3. Week 1:Review StandardsMitosis

  4. Standard 17-1 Students will describe the cell cycle and explain the process of MITOSIS in the formation of new cells.

  5. Standard 17-1 Sketch and Label the Cell Cycle

  6. Standard 17-2 Students will describe the purpose of mitosis. Mitosis occurs for: 1) 2) 3)

  7. Standard 17-2 Students will describe the purpose of mitosis. Mitosis occurs for: 1) Growth 2) Repair of damaged tissue 3) Production of new offspring in some organisms; ASEXUAL reproduction.

  8. Standard 17-3 Students will describe the relationship between the cell cycle and cancer. What controls how often cells perform mitosis? What occurs if this control is not regulated?

  9. Standard 17-3 Students will describe the relationship between the cell cycle and cancer. What controls how often cells perform mitosis? Chemicals calledCYLCINSare responsible for the rate and timing of cell division. What occurs if this control is not regulated? When these chemicals are not properly controlled (too much or too little) cell division does not occur as programmed.

  10. Standard 17-4 Students will describe mutations that can lead to cancer development. What is a mutation? What are examples of mutagens? How do mutations affect cancer development?

  11. Standard 17-4 Students will describe mutations that can lead to cancer development. What is a mutation? Mutations are changes that occur in the genetics of an organism, resulting in some physical or chemical change. What are examples of mutagens (chemicals that causes mutations)? UV light, cigarette smoking, poor diet, pollution, alcohol. How do mutations affect cancer development? Mutations in the instructions for cell division can mess with the production or release of cell CYCLINS, resulting in bad mitosis.

  12. Standard 17-5 How are MITOSIS and MEIOSIS alike? How are they different? Students will describe the process of MEIOSIS.

  13. Standard 17-5 • How are MITOSIS and MEIOSIS alike? • Both occur in phases • Both produce new cells. • Both occur in a variety of organisms. • How are they different? • Mitosis occurs in 1 stage/Meiosis occurs in 2 stages. • Mitosis conserves the amount of DNA of the original cell/Meiosis reduces the amount of DNA to ½. Students will describe the process of MEIOSIS.

  14. Week 2:StandardsMeiosis

  15. Standard 18-1 • What do the following terms mean? • Haploid: • Diploid: • Why is REDUCTION-DIVISION so important in the process of meiosis? Students will describe the process of meiosis in the formation of HAPLOID cells.

  16. Standard 18-1 • What do the following terms mean? • Haploid: cell that contains HALF of the genetic info as another cell; usually a gamete; represented by N. • Diploid: cell that contains the double/full amount of genetic info for an organism; usually a somatic (body) cell; represented by 2N. • Why is REDUCTION-DIVISION so important in the process of meiosis? • Keeps the amount of genetic information for a specific species of organism CONSTANT. Students will describe the process of meiosis in the formation of HAPLOID cells.

  17. Standard 18-2 Describe the process of Independent Assortment. How does Crossing Over increase genetic diversity? Students will describe the processes of INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT and CROSSING OVER during meiosis.

  18. Standard 18-2 Describe the process of Independent Assortment. As a cell undergoes MEIOSIS, chromosomes are separated into gametes to create a RANDOM ASSORTMENT of chromosomes within each gamete. How does Crossing Over increase genetic diversity? Swapping mother (maternal) and father (paternal) DNA guarantees each gamete will contain a UNIQUE combination from each parent’s parent. Students will describe the processes of INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT and CROSSING OVER during meiosis.

  19. Standard 18-3 What is PROBABILITY? How does probability apply to genetics? Students will describe the reasons inheritance outcomes are expresses as percent, ratios, and fractions.

  20. Standard 18-3 What is PROBABILITY? The chance occurrence of a specific event or combination of events. How does probability apply to genetics? Reproduction with gametes is a chance occurrence; the chance that any 2 gametes will join during conception. Students will describe the reasons inheritance outcomes are expresses as percent, ratios, and fractions.

  21. Standard 18-4 Students will demonstrate the use of a PUNNETT SQUARE to predict the probability of genetic outcomes. A PUNNETT SQUARE is a tool used by scientists to predict the possible offspring when pairing a male and female organism for reproduction. The result is a PREDICTIVE PROBABILITY of the CHANCE, each time conception occurs, of producing offspring with specific characteristics.

  22. Standard 18-5 Students will demonstrate the use of a PUNNETT SQUARE to predict the probability of genetic outcomes. Create a Punnett Square (test cross) that shows the mating of: TALL pea plant (TT) and a SHORT pea plant (tt) Create a Punnett Square (test cross) that shows the mating of: A person WITH a widow’s peak (Ww) and A person WITHOUT a widow’s peak (ww)

  23. Standard 18-5 Students will demonstrate the use of a PUNNETT SQUARE to predict the probability of genetic outcomes. Create a Punnett Square (test cross) that shows the mating of: TALL pea plant (TT) and a SHORT pea plant (tt) Create a Punnett Square (test cross) that shows the mating of: A person WITH a widow’s peak (Ww) and A person WITHOUT a widow’s peak (ww) T T tTtTt tTtTt W w wWwww wWwww

  24. Standard 18-6 Students will demonstrate the use of a PUNNETT SQUARE to predict the probability of genetic outcomes. Create a Punnett Square (test cross) that shows the mating of: Homozygous Purple and Heterozygous Purple Purple is Dominant to White Create a Punnett Square (test cross) that shows the mating of: Homozygous White to Heterozygous Purple Purple is Dominant to White

  25. Week 4Standard Review Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis

  26. Standard 19-1Students will describe the differences and similarities of Mitosis and Meiosis. Create a Venn Diagram to address the following descriptions • Number of chromosomes to start and finish • Number of cells to start and finish • Diploid vs. haploid • Phases • Cells involved • Purpose

  27. Standard 19-1Students will describe the differences and similarities of Mitosis and Meiosis.

  28. Standard 19-1Students will describe the differences and similarities of Mitosis and Meiosis. MITOSIS MEIOSIS

  29. Week 5Standard Review Reproduction 

  30. Standard 20.1Students will describe the basic anatomy of the human reproductive system. Question #1: What structure(s) is/are referred to as the gonads? Question #2: Do we classify the organs of reproduction as Primary or Secondary sex characteristics?

  31. Standard 20.1Students will describe the basic anatomy of the human reproductive system. Question #1: What structure(s) is/are referred to as the gonads? Ovaries and Testes Question #2: Do we classify the organs of reproduction as Primary or Secondary sex characteristics? PRIMARY

  32. Standard 20.2Students will describe the basic physiology of the human reproductive system. Question #1: What is the function of the ovary? Question #2: What is the function of the testis? Question #3: What is the ultimate function of the reproductive system in both males and females?

  33. Standard 20.2Students will describe the basic physiology of the human reproductive system. Question #1: What is the function of the ovary? Produce eggs (ova) and hormone estrogen Question #2: What is the function of the testis? Produce sperm and hormone testosterone Question #3: What is the ultimate function of the reproductive system in both males and females? To produce offspring for continuation of human species.

  34. Standard 20.3Students will describe the similarities and differences of the male and female reproductive systems Create a Venn Diagram to illustrate the similarities and differences of the male and female reproductive systems.

  35. Standard 20.3

  36. Standard 20.4Students will understand the relationship between infections of the reproductive system and human immune response. What is a pathogen? What pathogens cause SID’s (formerly STD’s) in the human reproductive system?

  37. Standard 20.4Students will understand the relationship between infections of the reproductive system and human immune response. What is a pathogen? A microorganism that can cause an infection. What pathogens cause SID’s (formerly STD’s) in the human reproductive system? Virusesand Bacteria

  38. Week 6:StandardsImmune System

  39. 21-1Students will describe the NONSPECIFIC and SPECIFIC defenses of the human immune system What are the body’s nonspecific defenses against pathogens? What is the function of the immune system’s specific defenses?

  40. 21-1Students will describe the NONSPECIFIC and SPECIFIC defenses of the human immune system What are the body’s nonspecific defenses against pathogens? First Line of Defense = intact skin Inflammation, Fever, and Defense chemicals What is the function of the immune system’s specific defenses? Vaccines and antibodies attack specific pathogens.

  41. 21-2Students will describe the immune system’s ability to distinguish “self” vs. “others”. What does the term “self” mean? What does the term “others” mean? What 2 events must occur for the SPECIFIC immune system to be functional?

  42. 21-2Students will describe the immune system’s ability to distinguish “self” vs. “others”. What does the term “self” mean? The immune system recognizes your cells as normal and belonging. What does the term “others” mean? The immune system recognizes other cells as abnormal and should be destroyed. What 2 events must occur for the SPECIFIC immune system to be functional? Recognition of “others” and accurate response for defense.

  43. 21-3Students will describe how the body responds to vaccinations and borrowed antibodies. What is a vaccination? What type of response does vaccination provide? What type of immunity does a pregnant mother pass along to her fetus during pregnancy?

  44. 21-3Students will describe how the body responds to vaccinations and borrowed antibodies. What is a vaccination? The injection of a weakened form of a pthogen to produce immunity. What type of response does vaccination provide? Active Immunity What type of immunity does a pregnant mother pass along to her fetus during pregnancy? Passive, or Borrowed, Immunity

  45. 21-4Students will describe public health measures that help to protect individuals and communities from infectious diseases. What does the term “public health” mean? List examples of public health measures that we use to protect our citizens.

  46. 21-4Students will describe public health measures that help to protect individuals and communities from infectious diseases. What does the term “public health” mean? Measures used to protect entire communities from contracting an infection. List examples of public health measures that we use to protect our citizens. Clean water and sanitation, food monitoring, vaccine programs.

  47. 21-5 Complete the concept map about the Immune System

  48. 21-5 Complete the concept map about the Immune System

  49. Week 7:StandardsGestation

  50. 22-1Students will describe the processes related to human development from fertilization to birth. Define the following terms: zygote embryo gestation trimester