I. Rise of the Church a. Germany /Italy area were divided into3rds • Emperor had short-term power limited to the north and GM area. Lombard kingdom controlled the area. Holy Roman Emperor was limited because it was an elected position & the power of the feudal barons. • 2. Various tribes controlled southern Italy and Sicily. • 3. Pope, head of now powerful Catholic Church, presided over middle of Italy called the Papal States. Held the spiritual authority. b. Led to the Holy Roman Empire -All of present day Italy, Switzerland, and Germany -962, King Otto I of the Germany territory and the Pope established it in order to try to unite Italy with Germany (Protection from Christian invaders) - Empire in title only (controlled by church dogma- church law)
Struggle between the Pope and Emperor over the ultimate authority. But who has more power? Pope wins out at Canossa in 1077, when Pope forced Henry IV to do penance (prayer, fasting, and pilgrimages) and accept papal supremacy. c. Development of the Church----Briefly During the Middle ages, the Christian church becomes the most dominant force in Europe. Church; became a state w/in a state having its own laws & government. Popes got involved in politics and acted as a feudal overlord to Kings. d. Church benefits and Influence -EVERYWHERE -Vows between lord and vassal were religious oaths -Kings crowned by the church -Church was largest landowner -Clergy (church officials) was privileged class and the church was tax exempt
e. 3 weapons of the Church • Canon law to punish crimes that violated church teachings • 2. Excommunication- kinks an individual out of the church and that • means you can not go to heaven. • 3. Interdict- kicks out a whole group of people f. People began to love Christianity. Why? Polytheism -Not satisfying to the people and lacked moral contact Monotheism-God that was above nature -Founder a real man & inspired people to spread -Hope for the future -Put in Holy books
II. Crusades- Holy Wars a. Background Arabs conquered Jerusalem (Palestine—Holy Land of Jesus’ birth) in 600AD (After Mohammed.) Arabs were tolerant of others religions by allowing trades and pilgrimages from Christians. However, during the 1000’s, Arabs lost control Moslem control leadership to the Seljuk Turks. The Turks threatened the city of Constantinople and the Byzantine Emperor asks the Pope for help to defend his city and regain the territories he lost to the Turks. b. Pope’s call for a crusade -Pope Urban II, eager to regain the Holy land from the Moslems, called a great meeting of church leaders and French nobles in France to join in a Great War -Became known as the Crusades to regain the Holy Land -Crusaders had various incentives to join (religion, property, adventure, escape debt and pope said if fight for Christ your sins would be wipedaway.)
C. The Crusades • 1. The First Crusade 1095-99 • -Led by French and Norman nobles. Left in three organized armies that moved across Europe to Constantinople • (suffered from heat from their choice of dress). Their motives for going varied from those going for purely religious reasons to those planning on using this an opportunity to get rich quick. The leaders were jealous and divided, each working against each other. • What happened? • -Crusaders won due to the Turks quarreling and disunity • -Supplies came in and they captured Jerusalem • Results • -Set up fourstates (Edessa, Trioplis, Kingdom of Jerusalem, and Antioch). Once they entered Jerusalem (easily) the crusaders slaughtered 10,000 Jewish people and Moslems. • -Introduced Feudalism and European occupied some lands for nearly a century • -Christians and Moslems exchanged cultures
2. The Second Crusade 1147-9 • -1147, Turks recaptured the important city of Edessa • Who was fighting? • -King Louis VII and the HRE Conrad III led armies to the Holy Land • What happened? • -Fought separately and did not join forces until late (after • two years returned home) • Results • -BIG time failure
3.The Third Crusade 1189-92 • Who was fighting? • -King Richard I or the Lionheartof England • -King Philip Augustusof France • -Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa • 1187, Jerusalem recaptured by the Moslem leader Saladin • (the Sultan of Egypt). • This stunned the people in the West and even the Kings • became involved in freeing the Holy City. • What happened? • HRE drowned> most of army turned back • Philip and Richard argued Philip left to conquer lands in England (pretended to be ill) • Richard could of won Jerusalem but preferred military adventure (got them to let Christians enter freely). • Results • Crusade accomplished very little
4. The Children’s Crusade • In Germany and France, children were caught up in the crusading spirit; they believed that in their innocence they could accomplish what the older crusaders could not. • Who was fighting? • Led by a French peasant boy named Nicholas and encouraged by their parents and some priests, many children joined the banner. They felt they could win back the Holy Land through love. • 1000’s of Children set out & had no idea where they • were going. • What happened? • Many died while trying to cross the Alps, and others who managed to get to the ships were taken to North Africa and sold as slaves. • Result • Crusade had no had a chance and ended in disaster.
III. King John & the Great Charter • a. John becomes King: King Henry II had 5sons. The youngest was John& he was very unlikely to become king. How many died before their father? 3 The fourth son was Richard I & he became known as The Lionhearted. Why were the people mad at King Richard? Adventures & Crusades cost $. What happened to allow John to become king? Richard died in battle. b. John inherits a kingdom in debt and fights with the Pope: • John tried many ways to get money to pay the debt. How did John get or save money? • 1. Buy goods at low prices and sell them at higher prices • 2. All landowners had to pay John a fee • 3. People had to lend him horses or carts when necessary. • John feuded with Pope Innocent III over the naming of Archbishop of Canterbury.
What was the tradition? Canterbury monkswere supposed to choose. The pope named? Stephen Langton. What did John do about the Pope’s selection? Ordered the Canterbury monks out of the country. • c. Pope Innocent III was angry: What was the law the pope issued? Interdict:No one could marry, get Baptized, or be buried with proper church service. John counters that with what law? Seized Church lands. King John and the Pope eventually make up but now John seems cruel. • d. Langton wants John to sign a contract or Charter: What would this Charter say about responsibilities? Responsibilities John had to the lords and what the lords owed people under him. What would this Charter say about promises? They could get rid of him.
e. Lords seize the moment: John lost a war to Franceand needed Money. Lords said would give money in exchange for Demands made in Charter. Agreed to sign the Great Charter or the Magna Chartain 1215. • f. Magna Charta: • Strongly curbed the King’s power. The main points are as follows: • 1. Not to limit the freedom of the Church. • 2. No taxingof lands w/out meeting with the lords. • 3. Chose officials who know the law. • 4. Cannot put a man in jail unless had a trial. • Agreed to terms but did not end his conflict with the lords. • What was the result of the Magna Charta? • Preserved rights by the lords that they already thought they had. • The King was not above the law.
g. Model Parliament: Eighty years after the signing of the Magna Charta something happened. Edward I decided to call a meeting of his council(clergy and Nobles). However, he wanted it bigger. He ordered electionsheld throughout England. They choose representatives. This meeting was known as the beginning of Parliament. In time, it would break into two groups. What are those two groups? 1. Nobles- House of Lords 2. Knights and citizens- House of Commons What was the result of the kings power because of the Magna Charta and Parliament? Limited the power of the King.
IV. The Black Death • a. What was it? • Disease that spread through Europe around the mid 1300’s • The exact year was 1348 and it lasted about three years. It would return about every 20 years for the next 150 years but it was never as bad as the Black Plague in 1348. • b. What happened if you got it? • -Severe pain -Fever -Always died -Ugly swellings • -Black dots on the face and parts of the body would turn black • (Literally decaying before you would die) Sometimes you went to bed healthy and never woke up. • c. Who was Affected?EVERYONE WAS AFFECTED • People that lived in a crowded, filthy slum (most likely to suffer) • Monks, nuns, and women had a high risk because they spent a lot of time in doors. (Dirty houses) • Kings, Princesses, Nobles and bishops died—did not discriminate • Families were destroyed
d. What were the actual causes? • 1. Small black Asian rats/ or the fleas on it on trading boats • 2. Shortage of cats • (earlier in the century cats were declared agents of the devil) • Disease the carried is called Buboes and that why it is sometimes • called the Bubonic Plague. • Theories: • -Blamed the Jewish people • -Earthquake in India released poisonous gas into the air. • -Strange arrangements of the planets in the sky • -God was angry with humans (people were greedy, • committed adultery, disrespectful)
e. How to stop it? • Europeans knew very little about medicine at this time. • -Best medicine was advice, “When plague strikes your town, flee quickly, go • far and come back slowly.” • -Also would use a medical tactic like “bleeding” • -Begged Mary (symbol of Mercy) to end the plague • -Avoid sinning -Groups were praying and whipping themselves • -Good luck Charm • f. Results • 1/3 of Europe wiped out (25m) ½ of Paris • Some cities up to 90% or wiped out • Ring around the Rosey • People lostFAITH • (priest and monks abandoned & sold Holy relics & • people thought what kind of a God would do this to his own people)