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Unit: Europe to 1500. Castles of Medieval Europe . Castles! Castles! Castles! . What comes to mind when I say castles?. Castles: A Quick Overview . They were not new in the Middle Ages- but built by lords consolidating power and having fortresses to protect their land’s people

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Castles of Medieval Europe


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castles castles castles
Castles! Castles! Castles!
  • What comes to mind when I say castles?
castles a quick overview
Castles: A Quick Overview
  • They were not new in the Middle Ages- but built by lords consolidating power and having fortresses to protect their land’s people
  • Some were cold while others were opulent
  • Used for protection, landmark and pride
  • Primary military resources of many countries in medieval Europe.
  • Ended with the advent of artillery during the 1500s.
english castles
English Castles
  • Brought to England by William (Duke of Normandy) in 1066. He used castles (made of wood) to become King of England. Later he used stone.
  • Built castles on hills as basis for the stronghold.
  • Castles became symbols of protection and power for peasants.
  • Lords were granted Castles through sworn allegiance to the King.
english castle dover
English Castle-Dover
  • Sits on the famous “white cliffs” of Dover
  • Strategic because it is the closest point in England to continental Europe. First line of defense.
  • Has concentric stone circles and secret tunnels.
scottish castles
Scottish Castles
  • Came to Scotland after the Norman invasion of 1066.
  • Built on hills near cliffs and along water and trade routes.
  • Used heavily in the 13th and 14th centuries during the independence wars from England
  • Mainly towered houses and featured stone walls
scottish castle bothwell
Scottish Castle- Bothwell
  • Built in Strathclyde
  • Thick walls made of red sandstone
  • Has a large round keep that is separated from the courtyard by a large ditch
  • Famous from William Wallace laying siege to it in order to take back the castle from the English for 14 months
irish castles
Irish Castles
  • Most were made out of stone and date from the Norman Invasion
  • Mainly occupied by invading lords as strongholds
irish castle blarney
Irish Castle- Blarney
  • Said that Munster men were awarded stone to build this castle after aiding Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn.
  • Contains the Blarney Stone and gives people the “gift of gab.”
  • Phrase said by Elizabeth I because of Lord Blarney’s penchant for debate
italian castles
Italian Castles
  • Originated from quarreling aristocrats and feuding families
  • Entire cities could be walled in, and wealthy families would build towers for themselves
  • Excellent examples were built by merchant princes in cities like Florence
  • Architecture based on Norman, Islamic and Asiandesigns
italian castle castelvecchio
Italian Castle-Castelvecchio
  • Built in Verona
  • Known for its fortified bridge across the River Adige. It divided the castle
  • Made out of red brick and lighter materials to highlights the design
french castles
French Castles
  • Started off as simple towers called donjons that were rectangular
  • Contained all of the rooms for the lords in the stronghold. Only trusted vassals could enter the donjons
  • William the Conqueror had a major influence on castles throughout Europe.
  • Went from basic stone strongholds to elegant chateaus.
  • Allies of the King claimed these fortresses and made palaces of them.
french castle mont saint michel
French Castle- Mont-Saint- Michel
  • Built in Normandy
  • City onto itself; stronghold
  • Tides create a natural barrier
  • Duke of Normandy founded Benedictine abbey there
  • Centuries brought many changes: Carolingian church then gothic structures seen today
german castles
German Castles
  • Reflect the diversity of Germany: North- circular citadels surrounded by water in lowlands. South- lack of symmetry with spires on high ground
  • Diversity based on contact with other cultures surrounding Germany, and where German lords and knights went to fight
  • Began to flourish during the development of feudal Germany
  • Some strongholds were very colorful
german castle falkenstein
German Castle- Falkenstein
  • Built in Hettstedt in the Harz mountains
  • Made to withstand heavy attacks- and an invading army had to pass six doors in order to reach the main castle
  • Eike von Repkow wrote the Sachsenspiegel book of law here
  • Used as a hunting lodge
spanish castles
Spanish Castles
  • Spain’s location as a peninsula separated from Europe by the Pyrenees Mt. was a major factor in castle building
  • Castillo (basis for English word Castle) strongholds were built to battle the Islamic forces invading Spain after 711 C.E.
  • Symmetrical and colorful in design with rounded towers and masonry based on Islamic design
  • The flat landscape gave towers excellent vantage points to see invading armies
  • Distinct from their use of torre del hominaje- a keep with machicolations at and in-between corners
spanish castles castel de monte
Spanish Castles- Castel de Monte
  • Built in Apulia
  • Octagonal layout on the interior and outside of the main Castle
  • Classic example of Islamic and Western European styles coming together
eastern european castles
Eastern European Castles
  • History known for battles against different ethnicities and a great diversity in culture, politics and geography
  • Castles brought by Germans building stone fortifications
  • In Balkans where Ottoman Empire would rule, castle fell into ruin as Christian nobility fled
  • Known for fortified monasteries-to protect the villagers from raids where they would seek refuge in churches
  • Slavs also built castles-Western in style
eastern european castle ciechanow
Eastern European Castle- Ciechanow
  • Built in Poland by Duke of Masovia as a stronghold in the 1400s.
  • Boasts great towers and symmetrically laid out on boulders for better defenses
  • Residential wings were not added until 100 years later
eastern european castle harman
Eastern European Castle- Harman
  • Built in Transylvania, Romania in the 1200s.
  • Is a fortified church that is encircled by a wall and protected by a water filled moat.
  • Many people laid siege to the fortress, but none succeeded.
side note japanese castles
Side Note- Japanese Castles
  • Sprang up from feuding Warlords
  • Very similar to European Castles- Used for protection and contained large walls, moats, slit windows and used terrain for defense.
assignment
Assignment
  • Create Your Own Castle!!!
  • Sign up for a country and then “build” a castle based on that country.
  • More details will be given to you