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Medieval Europe. Development of Feudalism. Introduction. Early Middle Ages: 476 to 1000 CE The High Middle Ages: 1000 to 1300 The Late Middle Ages: 1300 to 1450. The Early Middle Ages. Began with the fall of Rome Life was dangerous and difficult

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medieval europe

Medieval Europe

Development of Feudalism

  • Early Middle Ages: 476 to 1000 CE
  • The High Middle Ages: 1000 to 1300
  • The Late Middle Ages: 1300 to 1450
the early middle ages
The Early Middle Ages
  • Began with the fall of Rome
  • Life was dangerous and difficult
  • People needed protection from invading barbarians and kingdoms
  • People worked hard just to survive and have enough food
  • The economic and political system during the Early Middle Ages
western europe during the middle ages
Western Europe During the Middle Ages
  • Franks: a powerful group because they developed a new system of warfare
  • Depended on troops of heavily armed warriors who fought on horseback
  • Ruler needed the service and loyalty of many knights
  • Knights were rewarded with land and privileges
  • Married a Christian woman, Clotilda
  • Eventually baptized into the Roman Catholic Church, a Christian church headed by the pope in Rome
  • His followers became Christians
  • Led the Franks in wars that widened the boundaries of the Frankish kingdom
charlemagne charles the great
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
  • Most important leader of the Franks
  • Ruled for over 40 years, from 768-814
  • Unified nearly all the Christian lands of Europe into a single empire
  • With the help of Pope Leo III, he built his empire
  • Leo, in turn, got support from someone who had an army
  • Pope Leo crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman emperor in 800 CE

Charlemagne’s empire quickly fell after his death in 184

  • Weak rulers who followed him could not defend the empire against new waves of invasions
  • These kings followed Charlemagne’s example of rewarding knights with land and privileges in return for military service
a need for order and protection
A Need for Order and Protection
  • The Muslims came from the Near East and northern Africa into what is now Spain
  • The Magyars, a central Asian people, came from the east
  • The Vikings came down from present-day Norway and Denmark
  • Western Europeans developed a system we call feudalism to defend and protect themselves
feudalism establishing order
Feudalism: Establishing Order
  • a stable social order
  • People were bound to one another by promises of loyalty
  • All land in the kingdom belonged to the monarch
  • Great deal of land belong to the church
  • Large estates held by a lord
  • Most lords and wealthier knights lived on manors
  • Included a castle or manor house, one or more villages, and the surrounding farmland
  • Located in the country far from towns, so peasants had to produce everything the people on the manor needed
monarchs during feudal times
Monarchs During Feudal Times
  • Were feudal lords
  • Expected to keep order and to provide protection for their vassals
  • Believed in the divine right of kings
    • The idea that God had given them the right to rule
  • Power of the monarchs varied
  • Relied on their vassals, especially nobles, to provide enough knights and soldiers
  • Some lords grew very powerful and governed their fiefs as independent states
william duke of normandy
William, Duke of Normandy
  • Came to power in England after:
    • the king died without an heir
    • William believed he had the right to the English throne
    • Harold, his cousin, was crowned
    • William and his army invaded England
    • Defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings
    • Nickname William the Conqueror
    • Brought feudal instittutions from Europe with him.
    • Brought order to England
    • By the High Middle Ages, around 1000 C.E., much of Europe was stable because of feudalism
lords and ladies during feudal times
Lords and Ladies During Feudal Times
  • Highest-ranking class in medieval society
  • Most lived on manors
  • Some had several manors which the lords stayed at for a few months at a time with their families
manor houses
Manor Houses
  • Many of the people on a manor lived with the lord’s family in the main house (manor house)
  • Built of wood or stone
  • Surrounded by gardens and outbuildings (such as stables)
  • Protected by high walls and sometimes a moat
  • Center of the community
  • Villagers entered its walls for protection if there was trouble
  • Kings and queens, high-ranking nobles, and wealthy lords lived in castles
  • Main function was to serve as a home
  • Also one of the most important forms of military technology
  • Had moats, strong walls, and gates to protect those who live inside
  • Its large size and central locations were strong visual reminders of the hierarchy within the kingdom and the strict barriers between classes
a lord s daily life
A Lord’s Daily Life
  • Responsible for managing and defending his land and the people who worked it
  • Appointed officials to make sure villagers carried out their duties
  • Acted as judges in manor courts
  • Had the power to fine and punish those who broke the law
  • Some held posts in the king’s government
  • During war, lords fought for their own higher-ranking lords, or supplied them with a well-trained fight force
daily life of ladies
Daily Life of Ladies
  • Responsible for raising and training their children and sometimes the children of other noble families
  • Oversaw their household or households
  • Entertainment provided by musicians and jesters (“fools” who performed amusing jokes and stunts)
recreation for lords and ladies
Recreation for Lords and Ladies
  • Hunting and hawking (hunting with birds)
  • Feasting and dancing
  • Board games such as chess
  • Reading
  • Ladies did fine embroidery, or decorative sewing
manor homes and castles
Manor Homes and Castles
  • Lit by candles only
  • Warmed by open fires
  • Could be gloomy and cold
  • Little or no privacy
  • Fleas and lice infected all medieval buildings
  • People bathed only once a week
  • Clothes not washed daily
  • Diseases affected everyone
  • War was a constant danger
  • Mounted soldiers
  • Had to have some wealth because a full suit of armor and a horse cost a small fortune
  • Usually vassals of more powerful lords
responsibilities of a knight
Responsibilities of a Knight
  • It was a way of life
  • Lived by a strong code of behavior called chivalry (included bravery, loyalty, and respect for women)
  • Expected to be loyal to their church and their lord
  • Expected to be just and fair
  • Expected to protect the helpless
  • Performed acts of gallantry (respect to women)
daily life of knights
Daily Life of Knights
  • Participated in jousts and tournaments
  • Fought wearing heavy suits of armor
  • 11th century: armor was made of metal ring linked together
  • 14th century: plate armor was more common and offered better protection
  • Supported the entire feudal structure by working the land
  • Their labor allowed lords and knights to spend their time preparing for war or fighting
  • Legally classified as free or unfree
  • Free peasants: rented land to farm and owed only their rent money to the lord
  • Unfree peasants (serfs): farmed the lord’s fields and could not leave; they received a small plot of land of their own to farm
daily life of peasants
Daily Life of Peasants
  • Revolved around work
  • Raised crops
  • Tended livestock (animals)
  • Every manor had carpenters, shoemakers, smiths (metalworkers), and other skilled workers
  • Women worked the fields when needed
  • Women also cared for their children and homes

Serfs owed the lord numerous taxes

  • “Head money”: paid a fix amount per person every year
  • Tallage: lord could demand this tax whenever he needed money
  • Merchet: this fee was paid by a woman, her father, or her husband when she married

Required to grind their grain at the lord’s mill (which was the only mill in the village)

  • The miller kept portions of the grain for himself and the lord who could keep any amount he wanted
  • Serfs hated this practice and some hid small hand mills in their houses
peasant homes
Peasant Homes
  • Small houses of 1 or 2 rooms
  • Made of woven strips of wood covered with straw or mud
  • Had little furniture or possessions
  • Hearth fire in the middle of the main room, but usually no chimney so it was dark and smoky inside
  • An entire family might eat and sleep in one room that sometimes also housed their farm animals
a peasant s diet
A Peasant’s Diet
  • Vegetables, meat such as pork, and dark, coarse bread made of wheat mixed with rye or oatmeal
  • In the winter, they ate meat and fish that had been preserved in salt
  • Herbs were used for flavor and to lessen the taste of the salt or to disguise the taste of meat that was no longer fresh