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MEDIEVAL EUROPE

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  1. MEDIEVAL EUROPE CHAPTER 15 SECTION 1 (31 slides) 1

  2. GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE • Europe a continent • large peninsula made up of smaller peninsulas • much lies with 300 miles of ocean or sea • influenced • where Europeans settled • what they did - encouraged trade and fishing - helped economy grow 2

  3. SEAS AND RIVERS • played important role • provided safety & opportunities for trade • Seas • Adriatic • Aegean • Baltic • Bay of Biscay • Black • Caspian • Celtic • English Channel • Mediterranean • North • Straight of Gibraltar 3

  4. ENGLISH CHANNEL • separated Britain & Ireland from rest of Europe • sheltered from many wars fought on Europe’s mainland • developed distinct ways of life 4

  5. RIVERS • Rhine, Danube, Vistula, Volga, Seine, & Po • made it easy to travel interior of Europe • encouraged people to trade • Rhine • wide river • kept people separated • enabled different cultures to develop 5

  6. MOUNTAINS • made it difficult for one group to rule over all of Europe • encouraged development of independent kingdoms 6

  7. EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN RANGES • Carpathians • location – eastern Europe • cut off Ukraine & Russia from southwest Europe • Alps • location – middle Europe • Separated Italy from central Europe • Pyrenees • location – southwest • isolated Spain and Portugal 7

  8. GERMANIC KINGDOMS • Franks • Angles • Saxons • kingdoms developed societies based on location • Visigoths – Spain • Ostrogoths – Italy • close to center of old Roman ways • adopted many Roman ways • people farther from Rome held Germanic traditions 8

  9. ANGLES AND SAXONS • invaded Britain from Denmark & Germany • became Anglo-Saxons • pushed aside people living there • known as Celts • some fled to mountains north and west • others went to Ireland • today, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish descendants of Celts 9

  10. FRANKS • settled in France • ruler, King Clovis became Catholic • won support of Romans living in kingdom • nearly all Franks became Catholic • after Clovis died, Kingdom divided • first among sons • then sons divided kingdom further 10

  11. FRANKS • kings fought over land • nobles took over many royal duties • “mayor of the palace” • most important noble • gave out land • settled disputes • fought their own wars 11

  12. CHARLES MARTEL • “Mayor of the Palace” • most powerful mayor • wanted to unite all Frankish nobles under rule • pope offered support • Muslims conquer Spain & wanted to spread Islam across Europe • led Franks to victory against Muslims at Battle of Tours • result: Christianity remained Western Europe’s major religion 12

  13. PEPIN • son of Charles Martel • death of father - became “mayor of the palace” • support of pope & Frankish nobles • became king of Franks • pope threatened by Germanic group, Lombards • took army to Italy and defeated Lombards • donated conquered land to pope • pope ruled land • Papal States 13

  14. CHARLEMAGNE • son of Pepin • became king • aided pope – fought Lombards • invaded Germany • defeated Saxons • ordered them to convert to Christianity • invaded Spain • gained control of NE corner from Muslims 14

  15. CHARLEMAGNE • kingdom now an empire • covered much a western & central Europe • conquests earned name “Charlemagne” or “Charles the Great” • pope declares him Roman Emperor • concerned over peoples’ perception (pope had power to choose emperor) 15

  16. CHARLEMAGNE • made Aachen capital • set up courts to uphold his laws • nobles called “counts” ran the courts • “the lord’s messengers”, inspectors who made sure counts were obeying orders • believed in education 16

  17. CHARLEMAGNE • asked scholar Alcuin to start new school in one of the royal palaces • trained children of government officials • studied religion, Latin, music, literature, and arithmetic • over time, schools opened throughout his empire • wanted all people to be educated 17

  18. EUROPE INVADED • weak leadership led to invasions • south – Muslims • raided France and Italy from Spain & North Africa • east – Magyars • nomadic people • settled in Hungary • north – Scandinavia/Vikings • Norway, Sweden, Denmark • long, jagged coastline • many fjords • steep-sided valleys with inlets of the sea 18

  19. VIKINGS • lived in villages in the fjords • known as “Norsemen” or “north men” • had little farmland • relied on sea for food & trade • skilled sailors • built sturdy boats called “longboats” • survived rough Atlantic & navigate in shallow rivers 19

  20. VIKINGS • as population increase • began raiding Europe • Viking means “raiding” • raids terrified people of Europe • robbed villages & churches • conquered part of western France • Normandy named after Norsemen who ruled 20

  21. HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE • Muslims, Magyars, & Vikings’ raids destroyed Frankish kingdoms • eastern Frankish kingdoms became known as Germany • divided into many tiny states • nobles tried to unite Germany by electing a king • king had little power because nobles wanted to remain independent 21

  22. OTTO I • one of the more powerful Kings of Germany • fought Magyars • sent troops to protect pope • pope declares Otto I emperor of the Romans • territory includes most of Germany & northern Italy • known as “Holy Roman Empire” 22

  23. RISE OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH • Rome - Christianity became official religion • Ireland – Patrick (priest) spread Christian message • set up churches & monasteries • Irish monks • preserved Roman learning • passed it on to people of Europe • spread Christianity throughout Europe • brought Christianity to northern Britain • result – most of Western Europe became Catholic 23

  24. POPE GREGORY I • Gregory the Great • wanted all of Europe to become Christian • asked monks to become missionaries • people sent to teach their religion • sent 40 monks to southern Britain • converted Ethelbert, ruler of Kent • allowed missionaries to build church in capital city of Canterbury 24

  25. MONASTERIES • played important role in medieval Europe • had scriptoria, or writing rooms • monks copied Christian writings • Bible • works of Roman and Greek writers • could make money (many became wealthy) • produced goods • owned land • Abbot, leader of a monastery • many became involved in politics • served as advisors to kings • acted as rulers of the lands near monasteries 25

  26. MONKS • schooled people • provided food & rest to travelers • offered hospital care for the sick • taught carpentry & weaving • developed better methods of farming • helped preserve knowledge 26

  27. GREGORY VII • elected Pope • wanted to stop nobles & kings from interfering with church affairs • issued decree (order) forbidding kings from appointing high-ranking Church officials • angered Henry IV • Holy Roman emperor • refused to obey • declared Gregory VII no longer Pope • excommunicated by pope • excluded from church membership 27

  28. German nobles defended pope • Henry IV backed down • asked to be forgiven • German nobles chose a new king • Gregory VII accepts new king as emperor • Henry IV wages war • captures Rome & names a new pope • Gregory VII allies drive out Henry’s forces 28

  29. concordat • agreement between pope & ruler of a country • new pope & German king make a deal • “Concordat of Worms” • signed in the city of Worms • pope can choose bishops • emperor could give bishops government jobs 29

  30. INNOCENT III • became pope during height of Catholic Church’s power • able to control kings • if ruler did not obey… • pope would excommunicate him or • issue an interdict • forbids priests from providing Christian rituals • Pope hoped people would pressure ruler to obey 30

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