Schizophrenia. Psychology Dr Ros Weston. DSM IV & ICD. Symptoms (characteristics) Syndrome Axis 1 & 3 Cultural factors Social factors Experimental factors Diathes – stress & therefore multi-dimensional causes (model). Meaning : Schzo Spilt Phren Mind
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Dr Ros Weston
10 % of population is affected
Biological / genetic / evolutionary
(often known as medical model)
Twin studies : Gotterman reviewed 40 studies
Monozygotic twins 48% likely if one twin has it
the other will too.
Dyzygotic : 17% if one twin has the other has too.
Rosenthal : Quadruplets – all four had schizophrenia
(quadrozygotic) but they also had bad childhood
if parent has schizophrenia 46% chance that
the child will have it too.
If one parent has schizophrenia there is a
16% chance that the child will have it too.
If a sibling has schizophrenia there is an 8% chance.
It is relevant that there is a hereditary argument
here, That genes are passed from parent to child
½ had diagnosis of schizophrenia. This was
a matched pairs study ½ had it and ½ did
The rate of schizophrenia was greater in
Those with biological relatives than those
The rate did not differ for adoptive families that had
adopted child who became or did not become
Suggestions : environmental factors had little impact on
The development of schizophrenia
symptoms (phenothiazines) (Davisond Leale, 1996)
These have more effect on positive symptoms (delusions
and hallucinations) than a negative : …....... And catatonia.
The drug L-dopa can increase symptoms suggesting
dopamine has a role. (Kamme et al).
Barlow and Divand found evidence that the dopamine
argument is not as strong as we thought.
Beliefs that dopamine and serotonin are jointly part of the
Clozapine is used to treat schizophrenia and block both
dopamine and serotonin
Pahl (1990) large ventricle theory Suddatn
(1990) supports this.
Twin studies and brain structure reveal supports
This (Suddatn, 1990)
Buchsbaum (1984) PET scans : Schizophrenics
had lower metabolic rate in pre-frontal cortex
This gets worse and then gets labelled as
Michler and Waxler (1969) found mothers talking to daughters were aloof and unresponsive (like to attachment styles)