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Schizophrenia. Psychology Dr Ros Weston. DSM IV & ICD. Symptoms (characteristics) Syndrome Axis 1 & 3 Cultural factors Social factors Experimental factors Diathes – stress & therefore multi-dimensional causes (model). Meaning : Schzo  Spilt Phren  Mind

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Dr Ros Weston

dsm iv icd
  • Symptoms (characteristics)
  • Syndrome Axis 1 & 3
  • Cultural factors
  • Social factors
  • Experimental factors
  • Diathes – stress & therefore multi-dimensional causes (model)
Meaning :

Schzo  Spilt

Phren  Mind

10 % of population is affected

types of schizophrenia
Types of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganised
  • Catatonic
  • Paranoid
  • Undifferentiated
  • Residual
explanation evidence
Explanation & Evidence

Biological / genetic / evolutionary

(often known as medical model)

Twin studies : Gotterman reviewed 40 studies

Monozygotic twins 48% likely if one twin has it

the other will too.

Dyzygotic : 17% if one twin has the other has too.

Rosenthal : Quadruplets – all four had schizophrenia

(quadrozygotic) but they also had bad childhood

explanations evidence cont
Explanations & Evidence Cont…
  • Family Studies


if parent has schizophrenia 46% chance that

the child will have it too.

If one parent has schizophrenia there is a

16% chance that the child will have it too.

If a sibling has schizophrenia there is an 8% chance.

It is relevant that there is a hereditary argument

here, That genes are passed from parent to child

adoption studies
Adoption studies
  • Tierian – 155 Schizophrenic mothers who’d given their children up for adoption. There were Cf. to 155 not adopted and not having Schizophrenic parent. 10.3% of those with schizophrenic mother had schizophrenia. Only 1.1% of control group had schizophrenia.
  • Kety looked at adults adopted at birth
adoption studies cont
Adoption studies Cont….

½ had diagnosis of schizophrenia. This was

a matched pairs study ½ had it and ½ did


The rate of schizophrenia was greater in

Those with biological relatives than those


The rate did not differ for adoptive families that had

adopted child who became or did not become


Suggestions : environmental factors had little impact on

The development of schizophrenia

brian chemistry
Brian Chemistry

Dopamine hypothesis

  • Neuroleptic drugs that block dopamine seen to reduce

symptoms (phenothiazines) (Davisond Leale, 1996)

These have more effect on positive symptoms (delusions

and hallucinations) than a negative : …....... And catatonia.

The drug L-dopa can increase symptoms suggesting

dopamine has a role. (Kamme et al).

Barlow and Divand found evidence that the dopamine

argument is not as strong as we thought.

Beliefs that dopamine and serotonin are jointly part of the


Clozapine is used to treat schizophrenia and block both

dopamine and serotonin

brain structure
Brain Structure

Pahl (1990) large ventricle theory Suddatn

(1990) supports this.

Twin studies and brain structure reveal supports

This (Suddatn, 1990)

Buchsbaum (1984) PET scans : Schizophrenics

had lower metabolic rate in pre-frontal cortex

Than controls.

  • Regression to early childhood
  • Earlier stage of Schizophrenic sexual development
  • Primary narcissism (oral stage)
  • Ego and reality testing (Schizophrenics have loss of contact with reality as ego not functioning properly
  • Sexual instinct is very strong (impulse)
behavioural approaches
Behavioural Approaches
  • Learning plays a role
  • Experience of punishment means they retreat to an inner world
  • Labelling then takes place ‘odd ‘peculiar’
  • Bizarre behaviour may be rewarded with attention and sympathy – secondary gain of being ‘odd’

This gets worse and then gets labelled as


social factors social factors
Social Factors Social Factors
  • Double blind theory : i.e. communicate
  • Family system theory.

Michler and Waxler (1969) found mothers talking to daughters were aloof and unresponsive (like to attachment styles)

  • Expressed emotion – hostility, critism, emotional over involvement. Schizophrenics who live in a family with high expressed emotion are 4 likely to relapse than those not (Kavangh, 1992)
social causation hypothesis
Social Causation Hypothesis
  • Stress and social argument – more venerable and (leads to social drift. (Day et al)
  • Life events - Schizophrenics seem to have had more stressful life events in the week before onset. Day et al)