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Animal Science. Agriscience Applications. Objective. Investigate careers related to the field of animal science. Careers in Agriscience. Most entry-level jobs require a high school diploma 20% require college degrees Some careers require advanced degrees Veterinarian

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animal science

Animal Science

Agriscience Applications

objective
Objective
  • Investigate careers related to the field of animal science
careers in agriscience
Careers in Agriscience
  • Most entry-level jobs require a high school diploma
  • 20% require college degrees
  • Some careers require advanced degrees
    • Veterinarian
    • Highly technical task (embryo transfer)
  • High school agriculture class is a good start
objective1
Objective
  • Examine tools related to the animal science industry
animal science tools
Animal Science Tools
  • Candling Light
    • View the interior of eggs
  • Castration tools
    • Burdizzo
    • Castrator
  • Artificial Insemination
    • Artificial vagina to collect semen
    • Insemination straw for the disposition of semen into the female
animal science tools1
Animal Science Tools
  • Management tools
    • Dehorner
    • Rectal thermometer
    • Syringe for injections
    • “V” notcher for identification of swine
objective2
Objective
  • Analyze the various breeds of beef, swine and poultry as related to use and the economic value of each
beef breeds
Beef Breeds
  • English Breeds (European, Bos taurus)
    • Angus- black breed with excellent meat quality
    • Hereford- red with a white face
    • Shorthorn- used in the bloodline of more than 30 other breeds
beef breeds1
Beef Breeds
  • Exotic Breeds (India, Bos indicus)
    • Grow faster than English breeds
    • Leaner meat
    • Brahman, BeefMaster, Brangus
beef breeds2
Beef Breeds
  • Breeds in America have been developed by crossing (breeding) English and Exotic Breeds from India
  • Resulted in:
    • Increased heat tolerance
    • Parasite (worms, lice) resistance
    • Resist disease
dairy breeds
Dairy Breeds
  • Holstein
    • 90% of the dairy cattle in the US
    • Black and white
    • Leading producer of milk
    • Produce about 18,000 lbs. Of milk per cow per year
dairy breeds1
Dairy Breeds
  • Other Breeds
    • Guernsey- fawn and white
    • Jersey- cream to light fawn to almost black
      • Number one in milk fat
    • Ayrshire-cherry red and white
    • Brown Swiss- solid brown
swine and poultry breeds

Swine and Poultry Breeds

Objective: Analyze the difference between swine and poultry

swine breeds
Swine Breeds
  • American Landrace
  • Duroc
  • Chester White
  • Hampshire
  • Yorkshire
swine industry
Swine Industry
  • The swine industry has changed from the lard type hog to a lean type demanded by consumers today
  • Types of operations:
    • Feeder-pig
    • Market-hog
    • Farrow to Finish
swine industry1
Swine Industry
  • Purebred producers produce high quality boars:
    • Improves the genetic make-up
    • Purebreds are crossed with regular sows to increase hybrid vigor
poultry production
Poultry Production
  • Classified as:
    • Broilers
    • Layers
      • egg producers
  • White Leghorn are used mostly for egg production
poultry industry
Poultry Industry
  • Another Class of Chicken is the Bantam
    • Miniature versions of standard breeds
    • Primarily for show
  • 90% of the turkeys grown are broad breasted whites
poultry industry1
Poultry Industry

Dutch Bantam Chicken

pop quiz
Pop-Quiz
  • Provide an explanation for the term “farrow.”
  • What is the breed of cattle that leads in milk production?
  • What breed of cattle is know for producing the most milk fat?
  • What is the most common breed of laying chicken?
  • Describe the term “hybrid vigor.”
animal nutrition

Animal Nutrition

Objective: Determine the nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry breeds found in North Carolina

major nutrients
Major Nutrients
  • Water
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Fats and Oils
water
Water
  • Largest component of all living things
    • Animals tissue is about 75%
  • Regulates body temperature
    • Perspiration
  • Transports nutrients
  • Involved in all biochemical reactions
proteins
Proteins
  • Major component of muscles and tissues
  • Made up of amino acids
  • Continuously needed to replace dying body cells
  • Young animals need large amounts for growth
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Composed of sugar and starches
  • Provide energy and heat
  • Make up 75% of most animal rations
  • Main source:
    • Corn
    • Cereal grains
minerals
Minerals
  • 15 essential minerals:
    • Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, etc.
    • Example: calcium is needed in poultry for eggshell development
  • Minerals are supplied by:
    • Naturally
    • Mineral supplements
      • Mineral (lick) blocks
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Needed in small quantities
  • Need for vitamins varies from species to species
  • Sources:
    • Naturally found in feed
    • Feed additives made from animal by-products
    • Made by the body itself
fats and oils
Fats and Oils
  • Only needed in small amounts
  • Improves:
    • Flavor
    • Palatability
    • Texture
  • Increases fattening and milk production
  • Carriers of some vitamins
classes of feed
Classes of Feed
  • Concentrates
    • Low in fiber
    • Cereal grains
    • Animal and Plant by-products
  • Roughages (high fiber)
    • Dry roughage is hay
    • Green roughage includes pastures
    • Silage is roughage fermented from green chop
slide48
TDN
  • Total Digestible Nutrients

Concentrates are high in TDN

Roughages are low in TDN

assignment
Assignment
  • Read pages 484 to 499
  • Complete Self Evaluation page 499 and page 500
  • Complete both section A and B
animal digestive systems

Animal Digestive Systems

Objective: Compare animal digestive systems of beef, swine, and poultry

ruminants
Ruminants

Ruminant Digestive System

ruminants1
Ruminants
  • Cattle, sheep, goats, deer
  • Four compartments to their stomach
  • Can eat more roughage in their diet
    • Grass
    • Hay
    • Silage
    • Green Chop
monogastric
Monogastric

Simple Digestive System

monogastric1
Monogastric
  • Swine, horses, rabbits, humans
  • Stomach has one compartment
  • Rations must be high in concentrates
    • Grains
    • Corn
  • Animals can not digest large amounts of fiber or roughage
poultry
Poultry
  • Chickens
  • Turkeys
  • Ducks
  • Geese
poultry1
Poultry
  • No true stomach
  • Can not store large amounts of food
  • Birds do not have teeth for chewing
  • Food is swallowed whole
    • Stored in crop
    • Ground up in the gizzard
pop quiz1
Pop Quiz
  • Provide an explanation for the term “farrow.”
  • What is the breed of cattle that leads in milk production?
  • What breed of cattle is know for producing the most milk fat?
  • What is the most common breed of laying chicken?
  • Describe the term “hybrid vigor.”
pop quiz2
Pop Quiz
  • What nutrient is responsible for muscle growth?
  • What nutrient makes up 75% of most animals body?
  • What nutrient is made of sugar and starches?
  • What nutrient carries fat soluble vitamins?
  • What type of animal has four compartments to it’s stomach.