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Animal Science
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Animal Science

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  1. Animal Science Biology Agriculture

  2. Structure and Function

  3. Animal Structures and Function • Animals are composed of a variety of interdependent systems • No one system can function entirely on its own • In order to keep animals healthy, producers make sure that all systems function properly.

  4. Skeletal System • Function • Provides frame and support for all systems and organs. • Cartilage • Firm, flexible tissues that is not as hard as bone

  5. Skeletal System • Bone • Attach muscles • Means of movement • Protect internal organs • Storage of minerals

  6. Skeletal System • Layers of Bone • Periosteum • Outer layer • Cushions the hard portion of the bone • Repair of broken bones

  7. Skeletal System • Layers of Bone • Compact Bone • beneath periosteum • layer of hard mineral matter • Calcium • gives bones strength

  8. Skeletal System • Layers of Bone • Spongy Bone • Inside hard outer layer • fills ends of bones • lines hollow portions

  9. Skeletal System • Layers of Bone • Red marrow • inside cavities of spongy bone • formation of red blood cells

  10. Skeletal System • Layers of Bone • Yellow marrow • Located inside hollow portion • Fat storage cells • Energy storage

  11. Skeletal System • Types of Bone • Long Bones • Longest • Provide support and movement • Levers • Example -- legs, ribs, pelvic bones

  12. Skeletal System • Types of Bone • Short Bones • Smaller than long • Joints • Comfort and mobility • Example -- feet and hands

  13. Skeletal System • Types of Bone • Irregular Bones • Have an irregular shape • Support and protect • Example -- vertebrae

  14. Skeletal System • Types of Bone • Flat Bones • Thin and flat • Protect organs • Example -- skull

  15. Skeletal System • Joints • Where different bones meet • Ligaments • Connect bones together; tough tissue

  16. Skeletal System • Joints • Classified by the way they move.

  17. Hinge Joint

  18. Ball and Socket

  19. Gliding

  20. Muscle System • Function • To provide movement for the proper functioning of the organs. • Meat production • Muscles are processed into meat • 30-40% of the animal’s body is muscle.

  21. Muscle System • Skeletal Muscle • Movement for the bones • Voluntary movement • Composed of long, striated bundles that contract and relax

  22. Muscle System • Skeletal Muscle • Red Muscle • Contain many mitochondria; • Lots of blood; contract for long periods of time

  23. Muscle System • Skeletal Muscle • White Muscle • Fewer mitochondria • Contract faster • Fatigue faster.

  24. Muscle System • Smooth Muscle • Movement • Controls movements of the internal organs • Involuntary. • Examples-- Digestive tract, urinary tract

  25. Muscle System

  26. Muscle System • Cardiac Muscle • Movement • Muscles that control the heart • Involuntary

  27. Circulatory System • Function • Transports • Water • Oxygen • Wastes • Regulates temperature • Removes disease

  28. Circulatory System • Heart • Center of the circulatory system • Large muscle • Pumpscontinuously

  29. Circulatory System • Blood Vessels • Arteries • Vessels that take blood away from the heart • Veins • Vessels that return blood to the heart

  30. Circulatory System • Capillaries • Connect arteries and veins • Deliver nutrients to the cells • Take away waste

  31. Circulatory System • Red Blood cells • Give blood color • Carry oxygen • White Blood cells • Destroy disease • Pus

  32. Circulatory System • Four Chambers • Right Atrium • Receives blood into heart from body, from veins • Right Ventricle • Pumps blood out to the lungs • Left Atrium • Receives blood into heart from lungs • Left Ventricle • Pumps blood out into body via arteries

  33. Lungs Veins Right Atrium Left Atrium Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Arteries

  34. Respiratory System • Function: • Takes oxygen from the air • Places it in the bloodstream • Removes carbon dioxide

  35. Respiratory System • Structures • Nostrils • Large amounts of air • Nasal Chamber • Mouth • Brings in air

  36. Respiratory System • Structures • Pharynx • Passageway for • Food • Water • Air • Controlled by epiglottis

  37. Respiratory System • Larynx • Voice box (Adam’s apple) • Prevents material from entering lungs. • Trachea • Large tube • Made of rigid cartilaginous rings

  38. Respiratory System • Bronchi • Branch out further • Lungs • Gas exchange

  39. Respiratory System • Alveoli • Surrounded by blood vessels • Carbon dioxide is removed from blood • Oxygen is absorbed into blood

  40. Respiratory System • Diaphragm • Large muscle under the lungs • When contracted, rib cage expands and air comes in • When the diaphragm relaxes, air is forced out

  41. Nervous System • Function: • Central system • Motor Control • Sensation

  42. Nervous System • Nerves • Long fiber like structures • Motor Neurons • Controls impulses sent from the brain • To other parts of the body

  43. Nervous System • Sensory Neurons • Send impulses from the body to the brain. • Spinal Cord • All nerves are connected • Runs through the backbone (vertebra)

  44. Nervous System • Brain • Center of the nervous system • Divided into 3 sections

  45. Nervous System • Brain • 1. Cerebrum • Largest • Controls thought process • Ouch!

  46. Nervous System • Brain • 2. Cerebellum • Coordinator center for the cerebrum • Many movements are required to walk, eat, etc…

  47. Nervous System • Brain • 3. Medulla oblongata • Involuntary activities • Heart beat • Digestion • Breathing • Body Temp. • Feeling – Fear or Thirst

  48. Nervous System • Brain Stem • Connects the spinal cord to the cerebrum.

  49. Digestive System • Function: • Animal takes in food • Digested in to a form that the body can use. • Basic elements – Oxygen, Iron, Potassium, etc…

  50. Digestive System • Monogastric • Simple stomach • One compartment • Pigs • Horse • Dog • Cat • Birds