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Animal Science. Michael Gowans Westlake High School. Structure and Function . Animal Structures and Function. Animals are composed of a variety of interdependent systems No one system can function entirely on its own

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animal science

Animal Science

Michael Gowans

Westlake High School

animal structures and function
Animal Structures and Function
  • Animals are composed of a variety of interdependent systems
  • No one system can function entirely on its own
  • In order to keep animals healthy, producers make sure that all systems function properly.
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Function
    • Provides frame and support for all systems and organs.
  • Cartilage
    • Firm, flexible tissues that is not as hard as bone
skeletal system1
Skeletal System
  • Bone
    • Attach muscles
    • Means of movement
    • Protect internal organs
    • Storage of minerals
skeletal system2
Skeletal System
  • Layers of Bone
    • Periosteum
      • Outer layer
      • Cushions the hard portion of the bone
      • Repair of broken bones
skeletal system3
Skeletal System
  • Layers of Bone
    • Compact Bone
      • beneath periosteum
      • layer of hard mineral matter
      • Calcium
      • gives bones strength
skeletal system4
Skeletal System
  • Layers of Bone
    • Spongy Bone
      • Inside hard outer layer
      • fills ends of bones
      • lines hollow portions
skeletal system5
Skeletal System
  • Layers of Bone
    • Red marrow
      • inside cavities of spongy bone
      • formation of red blood cells
skeletal system6
Skeletal System
  • Layers of Bone
    • Yellow marrow
      • Located inside hollow portion
      • Fat storage cells
      • Energy storage
skeletal system7
Skeletal System
  • Types of Bone
    • Long Bones
      • Longest
      • Provide support and movement
      • Levers
    • Example -- legs, ribs, pelvic bones
skeletal system8
Skeletal System
  • Types of Bone
    • Short Bones
      • Smaller than long
      • Joints
      • Comfort and mobility
    • Example -- feet and hands
skeletal system9
Skeletal System
  • Types of Bone
    • Irregular Bones
      • Have an irregular shape
      • Support and protect
    • Example -- vertebrae
skeletal system10
Skeletal System
  • Types of Bone
    • Flat Bones
      • Thin and flat
      • Protect organs
    • Example -- skull
skeletal system11
Skeletal System
  • Joints
    • Where different bones meet
  • Ligaments
    • Connect bones together; tough tissue
skeletal system12
Skeletal System
  • Joints
    • Classified by the way they move.
muscle system
Muscle System
  • Function
    • To provide movement for the proper functioning of the organs.
  • Meat production
    • Muscles are processed into meat
    • 30-40% of the animal’s body is muscle.
muscle system1
Muscle System
  • Skeletal Muscle
    • Movement for the bones
    • Voluntary movement
    • Composed of long, striated bundles that contract and relax
muscle system2
Muscle System
  • Skeletal Muscle
    • Red Muscle
      • Contain many mitochondria;
      • Lots of blood; contract for long periods of time
muscle system3
Muscle System
  • Skeletal Muscle
    • White Muscle
      • Fewer mitochondria
      • Contract faster
      • Fatigue faster.
muscle system4
Muscle System
  • Smooth Muscle
    • Movement
      • Controls movements of the internal organs
      • Involuntary.
    • Examples-- Digestive tract, urinary tract
muscle system6
Muscle System
  • Cardiac Muscle
    • Movement
      • Muscles that control the heart
      • Involuntary
circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Function
    • Transports
      • Water
      • Oxygen
      • Wastes
    • Regulates temperature
    • Removes disease
circulatory system1
Circulatory System
  • Heart
    • Center of the circulatory system
    • Large muscle
    • Pumpscontinuously
circulatory system2
Circulatory System
  • Blood Vessels
    • Arteries
      • Vessels that take blood away from the heart
    • Veins
      • Vessels that return blood to the heart
circulatory system3
Circulatory System
  • Capillaries
    • Connect arteries and veins
    • Deliver nutrients to the cells
    • Take away waste
circulatory system4
Circulatory System
  • Red Blood cells
    • Give blood color
    • Carry oxygen
  • White Blood cells
    • Destroy disease
    • Pus
circulatory system5
Circulatory System
  • Four Chambers
    • Right Atrium
      • Receives blood into heart from body, from veins
    • Right Ventricle
      • Pumps blood out to the lungs
    • Left Atrium
      • Receives blood into heart from lungs
    • Left Ventricle
      • Pumps blood out into body via arteries



Right Atrium

Left Atrium



Right Ventricle


respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Function:
    • Takes oxygen from the air
    • Places it in the bloodstream
    • Removes carbon dioxide
respiratory system1
Respiratory System
  • Structures
    • Nostrils
      • Large amounts of air
    • Nasal Chamber
    • Mouth
      • Brings in air
respiratory system2
Respiratory System
  • Structures
    • Pharynx
      • Passageway for
        • Food
        • Water
        • Air
        • Controlled by epiglottis
respiratory system3
Respiratory System
  • Larynx
    • Voice box (Adam’s apple)
    • Prevents material from entering lungs.
  • Trachea
    • Large tube
    • Made of rigid cartilaginous rings
respiratory system4
Respiratory System
  • Bronchi
    • Branch out further
  • Lungs
    • Gas exchange
respiratory system5
Respiratory System
  • Alveoli
    • Surrounded by blood vessels
    • Carbon dioxide is removed from blood
    • Oxygen is absorbed into blood
respiratory system6
Respiratory System
  • Diaphragm
    • Large muscle under the lungs
    • When contracted, rib cage expands and air comes in
    • When the diaphragm relaxes, air is forced out
nervous system
Nervous System
  • Function:
    • Central system
      • Motor Control
      • Sensation
nervous system1
Nervous System
  • Nerves
    • Long fiber like structures
  • Motor Neurons
    • Controls impulses sent from the brain
    • To other parts of the body
nervous system2
Nervous System
  • Sensory Neurons
    • Send impulses from the body to the brain.
  • Spinal Cord
    • All nerves are connected
    • Runs through the backbone (vertebra)
nervous system3
Nervous System
  • Brain
    • Center of the nervous system
    • Divided into 3 sections
nervous system4
Nervous System
  • Brain
    • 1. Cerebrum
      • Largest
      • Controls thought process
        • Ouch!
nervous system5
Nervous System
  • Brain
    • 2. Cerebellum
      • Coordinator center for the cerebrum
      • Many movements are required to walk, eat, etc…
nervous system6
Nervous System
  • Brain
    • 3. Medulla oblongata
      • Involuntary activities
        • Heart beat
        • Digestion
        • Breathing
      • Body Temp.
      • Feeling – Fear or Thirst
nervous system7
Nervous System
  • Brain Stem
    • Connects the spinal cord to the cerebrum.
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Function:
    • Animal takes in food
    • Digested in to a form that the body can use.
      • Basic elements – Oxygen, Iron, Potassium, etc…
digestive system1
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Simple stomach
    • One compartment
      • Pigs
      • Horse
      • Dog
      • Cat
      • Birds
digestive system2
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Mouth
      • Grind down food
    • Esophagus
      • Push food to stomach
      • Muscles move food down
digestive system3
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Stomach
      • Muscles
        • Contacts and relaxes
      • Food pressed together
      • Digestive juices secreted by the stomach lining.
        • Hydrochloric Acid
digestive system4
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Stomach
      • Food is dissolved from movement and acid.
digestive system5
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Small Intestine
      • Duodenum
        • Secreted from pancreas
        • Breaks down proteins, starch and fats.
        • Juices still secreted to break down food.
digestive system6
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Small Intestine
      • Jejunum
        • Nutrients absorbed into the body
        • From intestine to blood stream.
      • Villi – Semi-Permeable membrane
        • Particles pass through.
digestive system7
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Large Intestine
      • Cecum
        • Not used in most monogastrics
digestive system8
Digestive System
  • Modified Monogastric System
    • Horse
      • Uses cecum to digest roughage
digestive system9
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Large Intestine
      • Colon
        • Storage of waste
        • Water is removed
digestive system10
Digestive System
  • Monogastric
    • Rectum
      • Muscle that passes waste out of the body.
digestive system11
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Cows
    • Goats
    • Sheep
    • Deer
    • Elk
digestive system12
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • These eat large quantities of fibrous material.
      • Hay
      • Alfalfa
      • Etc…
    • Roughage – Fibrous Feed
digestive system13
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Multi compartment (4 main)
      • Breaks down the polysaccharides
    • They chew their (CUD)
digestive system14
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Mouth
      • Food is ground down by teeth
      • Also used to brake down the cud.
digestive system15
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Teeth
      • Incisors – Lower front teeth
      • Dental pad – Upper part of mouth
      • Molars
    • Used to tear forages from ground
digestive system16
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Must produce large amounts of saliva
    • Used to feed microorganisms in the rumen
digestive system17
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Esophagus
      • Transport food to digestive tract
      • Transport CUD to mouth.
digestive system18
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Reticulum
      • Hardware stomach
        • Due to large mouth they collect hardware
          • Wire form fence
          • Rocks
          • Etc…
digestive system19
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Reticulum
      • Secretes mucus
      • Honeycomb shaped
      • Traps hardware from traveling to the rest of the digestive system.
digestive system20
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Reticulum
      • Regurgitation
      • Packs feed into and eggs shaped ball to be re-chewed. (CUD)
digestive system21
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Rumen
      • Largest compartment
      • Food is soaked, mixed.
      • Microorganisms ferment the feed.
      • Carbohydrates are absorbed by the papillae.
        • Small fingerlike projections that aid in absorption
digestive system22
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Omasum
      • Size of a quarter to enter.
      • Round – Soccer Ball
      • Many Folds – Like a round book
      • Grinds the food as it passes through.
digestive system23
Digestive System
  • Ruminant System
    • Abomasum
      • True stomach
      • Functions the same as the monogastric
    • Intestines are the same as monogastric.
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • Function:
    • Composed of glands that secrete hormones.
  • Hormones:
    • Chemical agent that causes an effect in the body.
    • Hormones control vital function of the body.
      • Growth
      • Reproduction
endocrine system1
Endocrine System
  • Pituitary Gland:
    • Located at the base of the brain
    • Master gland
  • Functions
    • Growth of bone
    • Maternal Behavior
    • Reproduction cells
endocrine system2
Endocrine System
  • Hypothalamus
    • Links the Endocrine with the nervous system.
    • Location
      • Under the lower front part of the brain
    • Secretes hormones for:
      • Hunger
      • Sleep
      • Body Temp
endocrine system3
Endocrine System
  • Adrenal Gland
    • Located by Kidney
    • Adrenalin – Times of stress
  • Thyroid Gland
    • Front of wind pipe
    • Controls rate of digestion
    • Storage of calcium
endocrine system4
Endocrine System
  • Pancreas
      • Below the stomach
      • Produces Insulin and glucagons
        • Regulates the amount of glucose in the blood stream
endocrine system5
Endocrine System
  • Hormones
    • Regulate other organs of the body as well
      • Reproduction
      • Etc…
excretory system
Excretory System
  • Function:
    • Rid the body of wastes
    • Kidney
      • Remove urea and nitrogen
      • Filtrates liquids ingested.
    • Wastes are flushes out the urinary tract.
animal reproduction

Animal Reproduction

Biology Agriculture

reproductive system
Reproductive System
  • Ovaries
    • Female reproductive gland in which eggs are formed and hormones are produced.
  • Testes
    • Male reproductive gland that produces sperm and testosterone.
reproductive system1
Reproductive System
  • Female Reproductive Cell
    • EGG (OVULE)
  • Male Reproductive Cell
    • SPERM
    • Semen - the fluid that carries sperm
reproductive system2
Reproductive System
  • Production of sperm is called SPERMATOGENESIS
  • Production of eggs is called OOGENESIS
reproductive system3
Reproductive System
  • Zygote
    • Cell formed by the union of egg and sperm at fertilization.
  • Embryo
    • Organism in early stages of development.
  • Pregnancy
    • carrying a fetus
  • Fertilization
    • the union of the egg and sperm nuclei
reproductive system4
Reproductive System
  • Conception
    • occurrence of fertilization
  • Ovulation
    • release of an ovule from the female.
  • Gestation
    • the time from fertilization or conception of a female until she gives birth
reproductive system5
Reproductive System
  • Vulva -opening of reproductive tract
reproductive system6
Reproductive System
  • Vagina - channel for birth and urinary tract
reproductive system7
Reproductive System
  • Cervix - divides vagina and uterus
reproductive system8
Reproductive System
  • Uterus - provides nourishment for fetus
reproductive system9
Reproductive System
  • Horns of Uterus - where fetus grows
reproductive system10
Reproductive System
  • Fallopian Tube - where fertilization occurs
reproductive system11
Reproductive System
  • Ovaries - produces eggs and hormones
reproductive system12
Reproductive System
  • Testes - produce sperm and testosterone
reproductive system13
Reproductive System
  • Epididymis - collects and stores sperm
reproductive system14
Reproductive System
  • Vas deferens - transports sperm
reproductive system15
Reproductive System
  • Penis - places sperm in female
reproductive system16
Reproductive System
  • Scrotum - protects testes, maintains temp
reproductive system17
Reproductive System
  • Sheath - opening of reproductive tract
animal reproduction1
Animal Reproduction
  • Ovaries – produces eggs and hormones
animal reproduction2
Animal Reproduction
  • The ovaries are stimulated by a hormone called the follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and produce a FOLLICLE where the egg (ovum) grows and matures
animal reproduction3
Animal Reproduction
  • When the egg matures the follicle ruptures and releases the egg - OVULATION
mating process
Mating Process
  • Around the time of ovulation estrogen causes estrus or heat
    • The time that the female will allow the male to mate with her
  • Males seek out females that are in estrus
mating process1
Mating Process
  • During mating millions of sperm are deposited in the female vagina.
  • Sperm moves by using their tails in a whiplike action – motile
mating process2
Mating Process
  • Sperm travels from the vagina through the cervix and uterus and into the fallopian tubes
  • Sperm and egg unit in the fallopian tube
reproductive technologies
Reproductive Technologies
  • Reproductive Technologies
    • Any method of reproduction that is different from natural methods
reproductive technologies1
Reproductive Technologies
  • Embryo Transfer:
    • The transfer of fertilized egg(s) from a donor female to one or more recipient females
reproductive technologies4
Reproductive Technologies
  • Super Ovulation:
    • Giving animals a hormone that causes them to produce more then one egg.
reproductive technologies5
Reproductive Technologies
  • Artificial Insemination
    • Placing sperm into the female reproductive tract by means other than natural mating.
reproductive problems
Reproductive Problems
  • Sterility:
    • Inability of an animal to reproduce
  • Freemartin:
    • In twins, when a female is exposed to male testosterone before birth.
    • Causes problems with the development of female reproductive organs
reproductive practices
Reproductive Practices
  • Purebreeding
    • Breeding two pure breed animals together
    • Usually papered to prove genetics
  • Crossbreeding
    • One breed is breed to another
    • Ex. Angus x Herford = Black Baldy
reproductive practices1
Reproductive Practices
  • Grading-up
    • Taking grade cows and breeding to purebreds