Animal Science By: Johnny M. Jessup Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor
What is Animal Science? • Care, management, and production of domestic animals. • Animals used for food, clothing, weapons, and tools • Today’s animal science includes biotechnology, genetics, and behavior research
Domestication • What was the first domesticated animal? • Dog for tracking and then herding • After animals became domesticated, they become dependent on man.
Domestication • Most cannot survive in the wild. • Most poultry can not fly, but why? • They are bred for size which makes them incapable of flight. • Turkeys • Chickens • Some species have their wings clipped at birth • Ducks • Geese
Food Work Medicine Research Clothing Recreation Companionship Security Uses for Animals
Uses for Animals • What types of animals are used for meat? • Cattle (Beef & Veal) • Swine (Pork) • Lamb • Goat • Poultry
Uses for Animals • Milk – inexpensive source of protein • Produced by dairy cows & goats • Cheese, ice cream, and yogurt • Did you know that over 90% of U.S. milk production comes from the Holstein breed? • What is another protein source that is produced by animals? • Eggs
Uses for Animals • What are some areas in which we use animals for work? • Cultivate land • Transportation • Control other animals • Assist physically & mentally handicapped • Blind
Uses for Animals • Medicine & Research • Animal Behaviors • Genetic Tests • Organs • Future treatment research
Uses of Animals • Clothing • Hides • Leather • Fibers • Wool • Mohair • Silk
Uses of Animals • Recreation • Horseback Riding • Racing • Zoos
Uses of Animals • Companionship • Pets • Assist with the sick and elderly
Uses of Animals • Security • Guard dogs • Eliminating pests • Ex.-Cats • Romans used geese to guard the gates of Rome
Uses of Animals • By Products • Bone • Buttons • Glue • Minerals supplements for feed • Fat • Cooking Oil • Cream • Soap • Makeup
What does the future hold? • Improved Efficiency • Genetically modified organisms • More Cloning • ?????
The Beef Industry • #1 red meat production industry in the United States. • Americans eat about 96lb of red meat per year. • Many by-products are produced from cattle such as: gelatin, leather, & soap.
Beef Cattle Operations • Purebred Breeders • Cattle of a single breed are raised. • Cow-calf Operations • Produce feeder calves for slaughter cattle producers. • Slaughter-cattle (Feedlot) • Buy calves from cow-calf operators and raise them until they reach slaughter weight.
English Breeds • Cattle breeds developed in the British Isles (mostly Northern England & Scotland). • Excellent grazers of native grasses.
Angus • Black breed • Known for excellent meat quality. • Marbling
Hereford • Red with white face • Originated in the British Isles. • Imported into the United States by Henry Clay in 1817. • Gained acceptance after the 1883 Chicago Fat Stock Show.
Shorthorn • Red, White, or roan (mix of red and white) coat. • Excellent milking capability. • Been used in the bloodlines of more than 30 recognized breeds.
Galloway • Ancient breed which derived its name from the Gauls of the Scottish Lowlands. • Polled • Long, curly hair • Performs well on poor land with coarse grasses.
Devon • One of the oldest breeds in existence. • Brought to SW England by the Phoenicians as they explored for tin. • Romans wrote about them in 55 BC. • 1st purebred to reach North America. • Known as the “Red Rubies”
Red Poll • Polled cattle who are red in color. • Developed as a dual purpose breed in England. • Believed to have come about from crossing Galloways and Devons.
Exotic Breeds of Beef Cattle
Exotic Breeds • Imported into the United States when consumers started demanding leaner meat. • Exotic breeds have calves that grow faster than English breeds.
Charolais • White to light blonde in color; pink skin. • Large & very well muscled • Originated in France.
Limousin • Light yellow color with lighter circles around eyes. • Lean carcasses with large loin eye area. • Small head with short neck. • Originated in France.
Simmental • White to light straw faces, with dark red bodies. • With to light straw faces, with dark red bodies. • Most popular breed in Europe.
Blonde D’ Aquitaine • Covered with short light colored hair. • Well muscled breed that developed in southwestern France. • Forehead and muzzle are broad, the face triangular.
Maine Anjou • Very red with white markings across the body. • Originated in northwestern France. • Large, very well muscled cattle.
Brahman • Light or medium gray coat color. • Characteristic “hump” over shoulder. • Large, drooping ears and loose skin. • Developed in southwestern USA. • Used mostly for crossbreeding.
American Breeds • Developed to withstand the heat and resistance to disease and parasites in the South and Southwest. • American breeds resulted from crossing Brahman cattle from India with English breeds. • The result was increased heat tolerance and disease and parasite of Brahman and the meat quality of the English breeds.
Beefmaster • Developed in Texas in the 20th century. • Approximately ½ Brahman and ¼ Hereford & Shorthorn respectively. • Selection based on the 6 essentials: Weight, Conformation, Milking Ability, Fertility, Hardiness and Disposition
Brangus • Solid black or red in color. • Polled. • Good mothering ability & feed efficiency. • A result of a cross of Brahman and Angus.
Santa Gertrudis • Developed on the King Ranch in Texas • All Santa Gertrudis are descendants of the bull, Monkey • They were created by crossing shorthorn cows and Brahman bulls.
Barzona • Red cattle with occasional white markings. • Developed in Arizona in the 20th century to deal with the extremely hot, drought ridden, rocky terrain.
The Dairy Industry • Second most important animal enterprise in the United States in dollar sales. • Consumption of milk and dairy products is steady now after years of decline. • Average Americans use more than 580 lb of dairy products annually.
The Dairy Industry • Milk production is not the only income-generating part of dairy production. • Calves not needed as replacements for the dairy herd are sold as veal. • Cows no longer profitable are sold for beef.
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Holstein • Black & White • Highest average producer of milk. • Comprises 90% of all dairy cattle in the U.S. • Made the most genetic improvement in recent years.
Jersey • Light Brown • 2nd most popular breed of dairy cattle. • Smallest of the dairy breeds. • Rank #1 in butterfat production.
Guernsey • Reddish brown with white underside. • Originated on the Isle of Guernsey in the English Channel. • Produces a yellowish milk due to the high beta carotene content.
Ayrshire • Red & White • Developed in Scotland in the county of Ayr. • Used to be known for it horns, but most calves are polled now.
Brown Swiss • Brown with a light dorsal stripe down its back. • Originated in Switzerland. • Only been recognized as registered breed since 1906.