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Key Ideas • Introduction of new building materials allowed architects to break from the traditional mold of building design: structural steel skeleton; ferroconcrete (concrete reinforced with steel) • Reaction to modern art influences
European Modernism Adolf Loos (Austria), Steiner House, 1910. Reaction against “ornamental excess of Art Nouveau” Loos saw ornament as a sign of a degenerate culture Stripped-down, severely geometric Exterior walls are merely to protect from the elements
European Modernism/Bauhaus Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer(German), Fagus Shoe Factory, 1911-16. Window corners Purely functional building Good engineering equals good architecture Curtain wall Steel frame allows large windows to allow natural light to flood the interior Vertical bricks shows division of floors No embellishment beyond engineering necessities
European Modernism/International Style Le Corbusier (French), Villa Savoye, 1929-30. Icon of the International Style Domino construction system – use of ferroconcrete slab Simplified form of classical Doric architecture combined with machinery precision House elevated above ground on pilotis Curtain walls Ribbon windows Flat roofs for terraces
European Modernism/Destijl Gerrit Rietveld, Schroder House, the Netherlands, 1925 International Style Radically asymmetric Horizontal/vertical accents Universal beauty Influenced by Piet Mondrian (below) rejection of organic style of Art Nouveau
American Modernism Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, Chicago, 1906-9. Prairie Style/International Style Cantilevered spaces Hearth central to home as psychological and physical center Horizontal lines Harmony in the house and out
American Skyscrapers • Steel girders/beams • Elevators • Fire safety Cass Gilbert, Woolworth Building, New York, 1911-13. Gothic – worship of business. Empire State Building, Art Deco style, New York, 1931.
International Style • Architecture • Architects communicated globally • Three common principles • VOLUME rather than MASS • REGULARITY rather than SYMMETRY (avoidance of classical symmetry) • Rejection of arbitrary applied DECORATION