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Modern Architecture: The 20 th Century. Advancement in industrial materials and engineering created unprecedented new forms of architecture. Architecture in the 20 th Century. -De Stijl in architectural format!

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gerrit thomas rietveld schr der house utrecht the netherlands 1924

-De Stijl in architectural format!

-De Stijl started in Holland but moves across the world and is then called “The International Style” popular from 1920s-1950s

-Flat, rectangular planes, straight lines

-Sleek design with function

GERRIT THOMAS RIETVELD, Schröder House, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1924*.
slide5

WALTER GROPIUS, Shop Block, the Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1925–1926*.-Resembles a glass box, lacked permanent interior walls-Hitler gains power, closes it and demolishes it (anti-modern)

slide6
School of Design in Germany, which taught the International Style

Founder, Walter Gropius (1919-1928)—school built to UNITE FINE AND APPLIED ARTS in what he called “NEW ARCHITECTURE”

They learned designing buildings but ALSO oil painting, lithographyweaving, stained-glass windows, book making, and tapestries.

He did away with architectural history! (did not want to stifle creativity)

According to Gropius, architecture should avoid references to the past

THE BAUHAUS

slide7

LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE, model for a glass skyscraper, Berlin, Germany, 1922* (no longer extant).-One of the leading figures of The International Style-New Director of the Bauhaus when Gropius left- “LESS IS MORE!”-Lacks exterior ornamentation-Basic geometric shapes

slide9

FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1943-1959*.-modernist style (smooth lines/form and function), Ascending spiral, light pours through ceiling (Hagia Sophia).

slide10

LE CORBUSIER, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950–1955*.

-It’s Modernist!

It’s a church!

-Hands in prayer or a dove

-small, stained-glass windows that resemble Mondrian

slide11

LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE and PHILIP JOHNSON, Seagram Building, New York, 1956-1958*.-Works with American Arch.-skyscraper (min. 490’)-shades are made on purpose not to ruin the design-steel frames, reinforced concrete, etc. This makes the use of glass work.

slide12

RICHARD ROGERS and RENZO PIANO, Georges Pompidou National Center of Art and Culture, Paris, France, 1977*.

-Multipurpose use

-Turned “inside out”