Modern Architecture: The 20 th Century. Advancement in industrial materials and engineering created unprecedented new forms of architecture. Architecture in the 20 th Century. -De Stijl in architectural format!
-De Stijl started in Holland but moves across the world and is then called “The International Style” popular from 1920s-1950s
-Flat, rectangular planes, straight lines
-Sleek design with functionGERRIT THOMAS RIETVELD, Schröder House, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1924*.
WALTER GROPIUS, Shop Block, the Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1925–1926*.-Resembles a glass box, lacked permanent interior walls-Hitler gains power, closes it and demolishes it (anti-modern)
Founder, Walter Gropius (1919-1928)—school built to UNITE FINE AND APPLIED ARTS in what he called “NEW ARCHITECTURE”
They learned designing buildings but ALSO oil painting, lithographyweaving, stained-glass windows, book making, and tapestries.
He did away with architectural history! (did not want to stifle creativity)
According to Gropius, architecture should avoid references to the past
LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE, model for a glass skyscraper, Berlin, Germany, 1922* (no longer extant).-One of the leading figures of The International Style-New Director of the Bauhaus when Gropius left- “LESS IS MORE!”-Lacks exterior ornamentation-Basic geometric shapes
-PURISM: pure geometry –READ about me PAGE 1101!!!LE CORBUSIER, Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France, 1929*.
FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1943-1959*.-modernist style (smooth lines/form and function), Ascending spiral, light pours through ceiling (Hagia Sophia).
It’s a church!
-Hands in prayer or a dove
-small, stained-glass windows that resemble Mondrian
LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE and PHILIP JOHNSON, Seagram Building, New York, 1956-1958*.-Works with American Arch.-skyscraper (min. 490’)-shades are made on purpose not to ruin the design-steel frames, reinforced concrete, etc. This makes the use of glass work.
RICHARD ROGERS and RENZO PIANO, Georges Pompidou National Center of Art and Culture, Paris, France, 1977*.
-Turned “inside out”