Chapter 3 Migration
Why People Migrate • Reasons for migrating • Push & pull factors • Economic • Cultural • Environmental – Intervening obstacles • Distance of migration • Internal migration • International migration • Characteristics of migrants • Gender • Family status
Refugees: Sources & Destinations Fig. 3-1: Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees.
Hurricane Katrina Migrants A major natural disaster represents an environmental push factor for forced migration.
Scene from The Grapes of Wrath The Dust Bowl in the 1930s led to forced migration from the Great Plains to California and elsewhere.
Impact of immigration on the U.S. • Legacy of European migration • Undocumented immigration • Destination of immigrants within the U.S.
Global Migration Patterns Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
Net Migration (per population) Fig. 3-3: Net migration per 1000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.
U.S. immigration patterns 3 different time periods: • Colonial immigration • 19th-century immigration • Recent immigration
Migration to U.S., by Region of Origin Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.
New York Harbor and Ellis Island Ellis Island is connected to New Jersey by bridge. Liberty Island and the Statue of Liberty are south of Ellis Island.
Colonial Immigration from England and Africa • Eur-voluntary, Africans-forced • Jamestown 1607—West Eur at the beginning, mainly Great Britain
19th Century Immigration from Europe • 1840-50s W. Eur, N. Eur • escape perscutions, harsh conditions 1860’s-80s—Ind Rev occurred, countries entered stage 2 1890’s—90% from Europe, but more from E. Eur. and S. Eur.
Recent Immigration from LDC • Immigration from Asia • Immigration from Latin America
Migration from Asia to the U.S. Fig. 3-5: The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
Immigration from Latin America • Currently sends most immigrants to US • Mexico has sent most ever • DR is second and El Salvador is third • 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, issued visas to several hundred thousand who entered US illegally in previous years. • Leave because of poor conditions and economic opportunities.
Migration from Latin America to the U.S. Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of immigrants to the U.S., but immigrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.
Impact of immigration on the U.S. • Legacy of European Migration • Undocumented immigration • Destination of immigrants within the U.S
Legacy of European Migration • Emigrants came after entering stage 2 (ind rev) • “Enclosure Movement” caused immigration • US became Eur. safety valve • Caused diffusion of language, religion, culture, political • Caused conflicts as well.
Undocumented immigration • 9.3 million illegal, 5.3 mill from Mex. • ½ get student or tourist visas and stay • ½ sneak across border, get papers for 25 dollars. • Employer must verify each employee
Destination of immigrants within the U.S • Most go to NY, CA, FL, TX • Most arrive by ship but now it’s the automobile. • 90% of illegals get in by Mex. • Asians to Cal and NY, Mex to border states, Carribean to FL or NY • Chain Migration occurs, job opportunities
Undocumented Immigrants in the US Fig. 3-7: California, Texas, and Florida are the leading destinations for undocumented immigrants to the U.S.
U.S. - Mexico Borderat Tijuana The U.S. side of the border is uninhabited and separated from Mexico by a fence
U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
Key issue 3 • Why do migrants face obstacles?
Obstacles to Migration • Immigration policies of host countries • U.S. quota laws • Temporary migration for work • Time-contract workers • Economic migrants or refugees? • Cultural problems living in other countries • U.S. attitudes to immigrants • Attitudes to guest workers
US Quota Laws • Quota Act 1921 • Orgins Act 1924 • Limit the # of people to immigrate to the US Quotas were designed that most immigrants were from Eur Eliminated individual quotas from countries now it is hemisphere. Brain Drain occurs
Temporary migration for work • ppl of ldc’s go into Eur and ME to work. • Take low status, low wage jobs • Reduces unemployment in Native country • N. Af to Eur, ME, E. Eur, Asia • Ger and Turk have an agreement.
Guest Workers in Europe Fig. 3-9: Guest workers emigrate mainly from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of Western Europe.
Time-contract workers • Millions migrated to work a specific time in a country.---end up staying
Economic migrants or refugees? • Important because they are treated diff. • Refugees are given special priority • Emigrants from Cuba: Pol refugees • 600000 left at the beginning • 1980 –125000 left when Castro let prisoners mental patients to leave • 1987—allow 20,000 in each yr
Emigrants from Haiti • Left because of pol. reasons • Stopped by US, Haitians sued and won • Shot for Guantanamo Bay • US invaded Haiti to help situation
Emigrants from Vietnam • Thousands left after war • Some had to leave on boats • couldn’t go to neighboring countries --1980’s second migration—went to Malaysia, Thailand, HK—still hard because considered boat people economic issues.
Migration of Vietnamese Boat People Fig. 3-11: Many Vietnamese fled by sea as refugees after the war with the U.S. ended in 1975. Later boat people were often considered economic migrants.
Emigration from China Fig. 3-10: Various ethnic Chinese peoples have distinct patterns of migration to other Asian countries.
Cultural Probs Faced while in Other Countries • Guest Workers of Eur. have same issues as illegals in the US. • US • 1920’s—E. Eur were inferior • Today: Cal. voted to not give public services to illegal immigrants
Anti-Immigration Protest in Spain Spanish youths attacked Moroccan immigrants in El Ejido, Spain after an alleged murder.
Migration within a Country • Migration between regions of a country • Migration between regions within the U.S • Migration between regions in other countries • Migration within one region • Rural-urban migration • Urban-suburban migration • Migration from metropolitan to nonmetropolitan regions
Migration between regions within the U.S • Large scale migration was to the west • Center of pop has steadily moved westward and south. • Moved slower after 1880…areas were harsh and hard to grow crops. • People are moving southward because of Climate and industries.
Center of Population in the U.S. Fig. 3-12: The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the migration of people to the west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.
Echo Canyon, northeastern Utah Echo Canyon was one of many obstacles to 19th century wagon trains heading west.
Interregional Migration in the U.S. Fig. 3-13: Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2003
Migration between regions in other countries • Russia—Put factories next to Resources and wanted ppl to migrate. People didn’t go because of harsh climate • Brazil—PPL live on coast..want ppl to move inward..created Brasilia and made it the capital. • Indonesia—Most ppl live on Java…Govt gave ppl land, seed and supplies to move to other isalnds. Too hard to live.
Brasilia, Brazil Brasilia was created as Brazil’s new capital in 1960 and since then has attracted thousands of migrants in search of jobs.