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Chapter 26: The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution

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  1. Chapter 26: The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution 1865-1896

  2. The Clash of Culture on the Plains • In the 1860s why was a clash between Native Americans and expansionists? • In what ways were migration and conflict common in the West? • How did horses impact the culture of Native American tribes? • How did soldiers and settlers undermine the foundations of Native American culture? • Why were the Treaties of Fort Laramie and Fort Atkinson significant? • In what ways did white treaty makers not understand Native American culture? • Only when did Native Americans surrender their ancestral land? • Who comprised the US Army in the West after the Civil War? • Receding Native Population • What happened at Sand Creek, Colorado in 1864? • How did the Sioux respond to the building of the Bozeman trail? • What did the Treaty of Fort Laramie say? • What happened in 1874 that provoked the Sioux to the warpath? • How did the US Army respond to the Sioux war party? • What happened to the Nez Perce tribe in the late 1870s? • What happened to the Apache tribe? • How did the government deal with the “problem” of Native Americans? • What factors led to the taming of the Native American population?

  3. Bellowing Herds of Bison • How did Native Americans use buffalo? • How did buffalo impact the railroads? • By 1885 how many buffalo were left? • The End of the Trail • Who was Helen Hunt Jackson and what did she write? • What was the goal of humanitarians at the time and what was the goal of “hard liners”? Is there a difference? • How did the government respond to the Sun Dance and the Ghost Dance? • What were the components of the Dawes Severalty Act? • Describe the government’s attempt to “civilize” the Native American population. • In what way did the Dawes Act strike at the organization of Native American tribes? • How did these policies impact the Native American population? • Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker • Describe the “fifty niners” or “Pikes Peakers”. • Why did the fifty niners go to Nevada? • Describe boomtowns. • How did the age of big business come to the gold mining industry? • How did the mining frontier play a vital role in subduing the continent? • How did gold and silver impact American society?

  4. Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive • What was the issue with the long-horned cattle after the Civil War? • How was this problem solved? • Describe the “Long Drive”. • What were some problems that could be encountered along the Long Drive? • How many cattle were moved between 1866-1888. • What factor led to the end of the Long Drive? • In what ways did cattle raising become big business? • Describe the “hey day” of the cowboy. • The Farmer’s Frontier • What were the provisions of the Homestead Act? • In what ways was the Homestead Act a drastic departure from previous government policy? • Some people thought the Homestead Act was a hoax, why? • Describe fraud committed by some in relation to the Homestead Act. • How did railroads impact the settling of the West? • How did homesteaders break the myth of the Great American Desert? • What was the 100th meridian and why was it significant? • Why did Kansas lose half of its population between 1888-1892? • What was dry farming? • What were some crops successfully planted in the West? • Describe the federal irrigation programs.

  5. The Far West Comes of Age • What states were admitted to the Union during this time period? • What happened in Oklahoma territory? • Who were the “sooners”? • The Fading Frontier • What happened in 1890 that was of significance and who wrote about it? • The Secretary of War prophesized that it would take 500 years to settle the West. What was the reality? • What was farmers’ most profitable crop? • Describe the theory of the safety valve. • Why didn’t city dwellers typically move West? • In what ways was the safety valve theory valid? • What cities were the “safety valve” of the late 19c? • What role does the Westward moving experience play in American history? • Culturally what issues were faced in the trans-Mississippi West? • What role did American government play in the trans-Mississippi West? • Who immortalized pioneers of the West?

  6. The Farms Becomes a Factory? • What was the focus of most farmers during this time period? • In what ways were farmers in the Mississippi Valley both specialists and business people? • What was the combine? • How were farms becoming like factories? • How did farmers impact California? • Deflation Dooms the Debtor • Farmers were once masters of their own destinies, how did this change? • How did low prices and the deflated currency impact farmers? • Define static money supply. • Describe the cycle that farmers were in during the late 1800s. • How did interest impact farmers? • What is “farm tenancy” and why is it significant? • Unhappy Farmers • How did mother nature impact agriculture? • What area of the US did floods impact during the 1880s? • How did the government “gouge” farmers? • How did businesses and “middle men” impact farmers? • How did railroad operators deal with farmers? • Farmers were typically individualistic, why was this problematic?

  7. The Farmers Take Their Stand • Historically, how had farmers attempted to deal with low prices and deflation? • What was the first objective of the Grange? • How many people joined the Grange? • How did the Grange’s goals expand? • Where were Grangers specifically successful politically? • What were the Granger laws and why weren’t they successful? • What was the platform of the Greenback Labor party and how successful were they? • Prelude to Populism • What did the Farmer’s Alliance fight for? • How was the Farmer’s Alliance weak? • Why didn’t farmers of the north and south work together? • What was the platform of the People’s Party (Populists)? • Describe Coin’s Financial School. • Name some of the major contributors of the Populist party. • How did the Populists impact the election of 1892? • How did racial divisions impact the Populist party?

  8. Coxey’s Army and the Pullman Strike • Who did Populists see as potential allies? • Who was Jacob Coxey and what did he demand? • What happened to the “Commonweal Army” once they arrived in Washington? • Describe the Pullman Strike of 1894. • What role did the American Federation of Labor play in the Pullman Strike? • What was Olney’s argument regarding the Pullman Strike. • Who crushed the Pullman Strike and why was Debs sent to prison? • What does “government by injunction” mean? • Golden McKinley and Silver Bryan • How did depression and the long-suffering farmers impact the election of 1896? • Who was the leading candidate for the Republicans? • Who was Marcus Hanna and how did he “help” McKinley? • What was the Republican platform? • What was happening in the Democratic party during this time period? • Who was the Democratic candidate? • What was the “Cross of Gold” speech? • Who were the Democratic “Gold Bugs” and who did they want to win the election? • What was the “Demo-Pop” party?

  9. Class Conflict: Plowholders Versus Bondholders • What was the major issue of the campaign of 1896? • How did the East respond to Bryan? • What did Hanna do as the chairman of the Republican National Committee? • Why did Bryan’s campaign lose ground? • What areas of the US voted for McKinley? What areas voted for Bryan? • Who didn’t Bryan appeal to and why? • Describe the “new era” of American politics. • Bryan’s defeat marked ____________________________________________. • What did the Republican era usher in? • Republican Stand-pattism Enthroned • In what ways did McKinley shy away from reform? • Describe the DingleyTarriff Bill. • What happened to the economy in 1897? • How did gold impact the economy?