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The French Revolution

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  1. The French Revolution •

  2. The French Revolution • The French Revolution began in 1789 and didn’t end until 1799. • The effects of this revolution were long lasting and far-reaching. • The French revolution and its after math formed one of the most influential periods in the history of the world.

  3. Political Causes: • One of the greatest causes of the French Revolution was the fact that France was still ruled by an Absolute Monarch. • After the Glorious Revolution, the Enlightenment and the American Revolution many of the people in France demanded political reform. • They wanted Absolutism ended and Limited Monarchy imposed.

  4. Social Causes: France was divided into the same three classes or Estates that existed during the Middle Ages. • First Estate: The Clergy, who had less than 1% of the population but owned 10% of the land. • Second Estate: The Nobility or the Land Lords, with: almost 2% of the population but owned 25% of the land. • They also received all the better political and religious positions. • In addition, they were exempt from paying taxes.

  5. Third Estate: The remainder of the population. There were three distinct groups within the Third Estate. • a.Peasants (78-80%) • b.City workers (10%) • c. Bourgeoisie (8-9%)

  6. The Bourgeois resented having money without the social status that went with it. They wanted the same privileges that the 2nd Estate possessed. Economic Causes: France was on the verge of bankruptcy by 1785. • The many wars of Louis XIV (14), the loans to the Americans during their Revolution and the inability to collect taxes from the first two Estates left France on the verge of collapse.

  7. Louis XVI (16) hired many finance ministers to try and solve the economic problems. • They all recommended the same solution, tax the Clergy and Nobility. • In order to do this the King needed their approval, but they obviously refused.

  8. “Q” What were the Immediate causes of the French Revolution? • Each of the 3 groups in the 3rd Estate revolted in 1789 to begin the Revolution. • The Bourgeoisie – they rebelled against the Estates General, the old legislative branch of government. • They wanted a new National Assembly, they wanted all members of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Estate to meet in one room and vote as 1 group. Not the old way of voting separately. • Called the Tennis Court Oath • The City Workers - were upset at taxes and food shortages, they went to the Bastille, the kings prison and fort in Paris, looking for weapons to fight for better conditions. • The destruction of the Bastille was seen as the destruction of the king’s power.

  9. July 14th is regarded as France’s Independence Day. • This was called Bastille Day • The Peasants – angry over rising taxes, and new Feudal Dues to the Land Lords, started to destroy the land owned by the Nobles. • This was called The Great Fear, as a result the King created the National Assembly. • The National Assembly tried to fix the problems by : • a. Ending the Feudal dues collected by the Nobles • b.  Abolition of Tithes (the 10% tax paid to the Church) • c.  Ending serfdom. • d. the privileges of the Nobility were also ended, as well as Feudalism.

  10. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: This declaration declared that all “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.” Man’s natural rights were “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” • Freedom of thought and religion was guaranteed to all people. • Taxes could not be imposed without the common consent of the people. • The Constitution of 1791: This plan of gov’t attempted to change everything about the Old Regime. France officially became a limited Monarchy.

  11. Why doesn’t the Revolution end in 1791? The Civil Constitution of the Clergy: The lands of the Catholic Church were confiscated, and all priests now had to be elected in the same manner as every other official in France • All clergy received their salary from the gov’t. • No Papal decree (Law) could be enforced without permission from the gov’t, • Church abuses were ended.

  12. In addition, all clergy had to swear loyalty to the new Constitution. • The Pope said that any Priest who did was excommunicated • Less than half of the clergy did this, which created two Churches within the country. • This rift created many problems for the new government

  13. This stage begins with the execution of Louis XVI, and ended with the execution of Robespierre, the leader of this stage. It is during this period that the revolution became bloody and violent. In January 1793, Louis XVI was publicly guillotined. Stage Two: 1792-1794 Regarded as the Radical Stage

  14. A Committee of Public Safety was created in 1793 and instituted a Reign of Terror to rid France of all counter revolutionaries. • It is estimated that 40,000 to 50,000 people lost their lives from 1793-1794 just in Paris.

  15. It was during this stage that Napoleon Bonaparte became famous for the battles he had won in Europe. By 1797 Napoleon had made peace with all nations except England. The Coup d’Etat of 1799: Napoleon ended the reign of the Directory with his military overthrow of the gov’t. This is the end of the revolution in France and the beginning of strong dictatorship. Stage Three: The Directory 1795-1799

  16. The Napoleonic Era 1799-1815 • “Q” What reforms did Napoleon bring about in France? • 1.The Concordat 1801: Napoleon and Pope Pius VII finally ended the turmoil that began with the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1791 • a.The loyalty oath was removed • b.Napoleon paid Church salaries • c.Napoleon nominated the Bishops d. The land confiscated remained under gov’t control. The people of France were delighted that the religious rift was healed.

  17. 2. Napoleonic Code 1804: He instituted Social, Legal and Economic reforms to try and satisfy all the people in France. • a.  People were granted trial by jury and equal treatment under the law • b. People were granted the opportunity for social mobility • c. positions were appointed based upon merit not birth

  18. d. All people regardless of social rank paid taxes, e. a Bank of France was established f. Public Schools were created * Napoleon did not allow for political freedom. Speech and press were rigidly controlled. * In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor of France. What started out as a Revolution to bring about Limited Monarchy was eventually ended by a man who imposed a police state.

  19. Napoleon Bonaparte •

  20. Napoleon soon began to conquer lands surrounding France. As he conquered these lands he instituted his new Civil Code. The impact was the end of the Old Regime throughout Europe and the beginning of Liberal Reforms. In 1812 he invaded Russia with an army of 600,000 men he suffered huge losses and left Russia with only 30,000 soldiers. Napoleons Foreign Policy

  21. In 1814 the Quadruple Alliance defeated Napoleon and exiled him to Elba (an island off the coast of Italy). In 1815 he escaped and returned to France. He was eventually defeated and this time exiled to St. Helena (an island off the coast of Africa)

  22. “Q” How did Napoleon impact the development of Europe and France? • Although he was a Dictator, he did more to spread the Liberal ideas of Social, Legal and Economic equality than any other leader in the history of Europe. • After he was exiled the second time, the leaders of Europe tried to bring back the Conservative ways of the Old Regime. Wherever they tried Revolution broke out. • Although Napoleon’s reign didn’t last long his ideas did.

  23. The Russian Revolution’s

  24. Either death to capitalism, or death under the heel of capitalism (1919)

  25. The November Revolution • • • •

  26. Russia had undergone several revolutions throughout their history. • The basic causes of these revolutions have one common thread, the inability of the gov’t to correct the problems at hand. • At the turn of the 20th century Russia was still an agricultural society, it was still in the dark ages compared to the rest of Western Europe. • The citizens of Russia, although extremely loyal to the Czar, begged for changes. • The inability of the Czar to meet these demands ultimately led to his death in 1917.