Dual Revolution • The Industrial Revolution which began in England around 1780. • The French Revolution which rocked France in 1789.
Socialist Concerns • Early French socialist thinkers were already aware that the political revolution in France, the rise of laissez faire economics and the emergence of modern industry in Britain were transforming society. • They were disturbed because they saw these developments as promoting selfish individualism and splitting the community into isolated fragments. • There was they believed, an urgent need for further reorganization of society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.
Economic Planning • Early French socialists believed in economic planning. • Inspired by the emergency economic measures of 1793 and 1794 (the terror) in France. • They argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job • Socialists believed that private property should strictly regulated or that it should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership.
Henri de Saint Simon 1760-1825 • The key to progress was proper social organization • The parasites (the court, aristocracy, churchmen) should give way to the doers- the leading scientists, engineers and industrialists. • The doers would carefully plan the economy and guide it forward by undertaking vast public works projects and establishing investment banks.
Charles Fourier 1772-1837 • Saw a socialist utopia of mathematically precise, self sufficient communities made up of 1620 people. • Fourier called for the abolition of marriage.
Louis Blanc 1811-1882 • Urged workers to organize for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully. • Blanc believed that the state should set up government sponsored workshops and factories to guarantee full employment.
Joseph Proudhon 1809-1865 • What is Property? • Nothing but theft. • Property was profit that was stolen from the worker. • The worker was the source of all wealth.
Karl Marx 1818-1883 • 1848 Marx co-authored the communist manifesto with Friedrich Engels • Engels had previously written the condition of the working class in England in 1844. • Marx argued that the interests of the middle class and the industrial working class were inevitably opposed to each other. • History of all previously existing society is the history of class struggle. • With the coming of modern industry, society was split more clearly than ever before; between the middle class (bourgeoisie) and the modern working class (Proletariat)
Bourgeoisie vs. workers • Just as the middle class had triumphed over the feudal aristocracy, Marx predicted that the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie through a violent revolution.
3 Streams leading to Marxism • French Revolution • Abrupt, total revolution • Success of Bourgeoisie • British Industrial Revolution • Position of labor • “condition of Working Class” Engels • German Philosophy of Hegel
Philosophy of Hegel • Dialectics • Thesis vs. Antithesis=synthesis • Historic change comes through the clash of antagonistic elements. • History is a process of development through time, logical and deterministic, everything happens in sequence by cause. • Hegel saw primacy of ideas that cause change, Marx focused on economic reality.
Marxian view of Historical Development • Material conditions give rise to economic classes. • Each class develops ideology suited to its needs. • Prevailing religion, government, law, morals reflect the outlook of these classes
Class antagonism • Agrarian Conditions produce landholding class • Changes in trade routes, money, productive techniques, leads to rise of Bourgeoisie • Eventually Bourgeoisie and landholding class clash • England 1642 • France 1789
Development of Proletariat • As the Bourgeoisie develops there is a corresponding development in the proletariat. • According to Marx the Bourg. Is defined as those who own capital • Proletariat does not own capital • Under competitive conditions the Bourg. Devour themselves • The Proletariat then overthrows the Bourg. In a revolution.
Results of Proletariat revolution • Abolish private property/private ownership of capital • Classless society results • State withers • Religion disappears
Marxist ideas • Labor theory of value • Value of any man-made object depended on the amount of labor put into it. Capital is the stored up labor of past times. • Surplus value theory • The worker is paid less than the value of his labor (e.g. product sells for $10 and the total worker wage is $3, according to Marx the worker has had $7 stolen from him) • Capital therefore is accumulated surplus value that the prevailing system (gov’t, religion, law, education, etc.) has allowed the owner to steal from the worker.
Marxist ideas, cont. • Workers must remain angry. • Union gains of higher wages were just more crumbs from the owners table. Even if the worker is paid $5 (referring to the previous example) he is still being robbed of $5. • No Unions, No gov’t legislation (could the worker make real gains through a gov’t committed to protecting the ruling classes interests?)
Ideas from Communist Manifesto • The worker is deprived of the wealth he himself has created • The state is a committee of the bourgeoisie for the exploitation of the worker • Religion is a drug to keep the workingman quietly dreaming of his heavenly reward. “Opiate of the Masses” • The working family has been prostituted and brutalized by the bourgeoisie • The proletariat have no country
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who painted Liberty Leading the people? • Delacroix
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Liberty Leading the people was painted after which revolution? • French Revolution of 1830
In which of the following situations did the normally flexible English government behave in a most reactionary manner? • a. the Reform Bill of 1832 • b. the “battle of Peterloo” 1819 • c. the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 • d. All of the above were decisions by the British government that shifted the country to the political right. • b
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • With whom did the Greeks fight against to win their independence in the Greek Revolution? • Ottoman Turks
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • At What battle did England, France, and Russia defeat a Turco-Egyptian navy? • Navarino Bay (1829) • What treaty ended the Greek Revolution? • Treaty of Adrianople
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Why did many Europeans support the Greeks? • Saw it as home of democracy, were in love with classical Greek culture, birthplace of democracy, Russians – stirred by piety of their Orthodox brethren
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • What Romantic poet fought and died in the Greek Revolution? • Lord Byron
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • What six points did the Chartists demand from parliament? • Annual elections held for the House of Commons • Universal male suffrage • Equal electoral districts • Secret ballots • Abolition of property qualifications for membership to the House of Commons • Pay members of the House of Commons a salary so poor people can serve
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Was the Chartist movement successful? • No.
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • What was the right of legitimacy? • Restoration of pre-revolutionary absolutist monarchies louis XVIII
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who crushed the June Days Revolt? • Cavaignac • What was his nickname? • The Butcher
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Which countries made up the holy alliance? • Russia, Austria, Prussia
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • After 1815, what happened to Poland? • It was annexed by Russia.
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who was an influential French Utopian Socialist? • Count de Saint Simon
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Which movement emphasized emotion, spontaneity, and braking from classical ideas? • Romanticism Raft of Medusa Georges Clairin, The Guard
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • What were Charles X’s 4 ordinances? • Chamber of Deputies was disbanded • Press was censored • The amount of people who could vote was reduced • An election was to be held for the new Chamber of Deputies
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who was Louis Blanc, what did he want and was he successful? • He was an utopian socialist that wanted social workshops in the new French government. He failed.
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who headed the “Second Republic in France”? • Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • In which 3 countries were the major revolutions of 1848? • Austria, France, Prussia Austrian Revolution French Revolution Riots in Berlin
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who led the Revolution in Austria? • Louis Kossuth
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who was Lamartine? • A political republican in France who opposed Louis Blanc
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Name 3 Romantic composers? • Franz List, Chopin, Beethoven Chopin
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Which romantic composer is also considered by some to be classical? • Beethoven
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who was the “Greatest Pianist” of the Romantic Era? • Franz Liszt
Revolutions of 1830 Review • Who replaced Charles X? • Louis Phillippe Right: Charles X Left: Louis Phillippe
Revolutions of 1848 • Who was overthrown in France in 1848? • Louis Phillippe
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Who painted “The raft of the Medusa”? • Gericault
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Which revolution of 1830 was not successful? • Poland • Who crushed it? • Nicholas I of Russia
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • Guizot was the foreign minister of which French King • Louis Phillipe
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • He wrote “beauty is truth, truth is beauty, that is all ye know on earth and all ye need to know. • John Keats
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • What was the title of the previous poem? • Ode on a Grecian Urn
Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review • The Provisional French government of 1848 was made up of these two types of Republicans • Political, Social