Flight Safety • An understanding of the causes of actual and potential accidents and incidents will most likely improve a pilot’s ability to operate safely. • This section will include – Analysis of accident data Discussion of prevention techniques Evaluation of weight and balance issues Review of flight safety publication resources.
Flight Safety • Look at glider accidents (fatal and non-fatal) reported to the NTSB
Major Accidents • Launch PT3 events • Intentional vs unintentional release • Mid-air collisions • Glider and Towplane collide turning final • Airplane collides with Towplane towing Glider • Two Gliders collide during cruise flight (contest) • Two Gliders collide while thermaling (contest) • ‘04-1, ‘05-0, ‘06-1, ‘07-0, ‘08-2, ‘09-0, ‘10-4
Major Accidents • Crashed Gliders • Glider crashed in mountainous terrain • Glider crashed in field • Approach and Landing • Major thrust for the past few years
Landing Accidents • Hit object on approach -- 10 • Stall/spin on approach -- 1 • Hit object on ground -- 3 • Hard landing -- 3 • Land short (undershoot) -- 0 • Land long (overshoot) -- 1 • LANDING ACCIDENT PERCENTAGE HAS BEEN STUBBORNLY STUCK BETWEEN 60% AND 70% OF THE TOTAL OVER THE LAST SEVERAL YEARS, WITH NO SIGN OF IMPROVEMENT. • WHAT LESSONS CAN BE LEARNED FROM THIS?
Flight Safety • Part 830 accident reporting requirements, needed in the event of unsuccessful prevention, will be reviewed in the FIRC unit on FARs. • FLIGHT SAFETY PUBLICATIONS come in several categories – • Prevention media, including hard copy handouts, issued by the FAA – contact FAA FSDO/Flight Safety Counselor for information and supplies – in process of being superseded by on-line resources. • NTSB Accident and Incident Reports – www.ntsb.gov/aviation/aviation.htm. URL listed on p. 10 of ivory FIRC Supplement book.
Flight Safety • Problem solving sections of gliding books like the FAA Glider Flying Handbook – section on Systems and Equipment Malfunctions is a good example. • Primary Flight Control Systems – Examples of problem solving are: • Aileron Malfunctions – • Improper connection during assembly • Failure to remove control locks • Separation of gap seal tape • Interference of a foreign object preventing full and free travel of stick or aileron control circuit • Structural failure of aileron or damage from flutter.
Flight Safety These examples are followed by analysis and suggested action to counteract the aileron malfunction – for example roll control using secondary effects of rudder. • Such an approach gives a new level of focus in student training.
Flight Safety The GFH also discusses • Elevator malfunctions and possible remedies. • Rudder malfunctions and possible remedies. • Elevator trim malfunctions and possible remedies. • Spoiler/dive brake malfunctions and possible remedies.
Flight Safety • Incorrect WEIGHT AND BALANCE has been highlighted as a particular problem affecting flight safety. • Despite available information in the glider (A R O W) and reminders in checklists (CB SIFT BEC), pilots are still getting it wrong • Pilots need better awareness of the importance of getting the weight and balance correct. • Apart from knowing how to make weight and balance calculations and to make proper use of them, a student needs to know other possible causes of imbalance situations. • The FAA GFH discusses problems associated with CG forward of forward limit, and with CG aft of aft limit.
Flight Safety • PREVENTION TECHNIQUES • Planning ahead – if 2 crew, consider how to use SPRM • SPRM generally – what are other resources on the field available to the pilot? • Checks: • Pilot IMSAFE - p. 12 of desert sand FIRC Supplement book. • Glider Rigging (Flight Manual) • Pre-Flight (Flight Manual) • Critical Assembly Check (SSF) • Pre-Takeoff (Flight and Operations Manuals) • UNINTERRUPTED CHECKS
Flight Safety • PRE-TAKE OFF VITAL ACTIONS “CB SIFT BEC” • COMPLETE ALL CHECKS BEFORE ATTACHING TOWROPE!
Scenario Based Training • Landing scenario • Collision avoidance scenario • PT3 scenario
Flight Safety • Don’t be rushed • Don’t assume • Structured uninterrupted preparation