Why 1450? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why 1450?
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Why 1450?

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  1. Why 1450? • End of the Middle Ages • Beginning of Northern Renaissance • Globalization of trade • Direct contact between Europe and Americas, Europe and sub-Saharan Africa • End of the Byzantine Empire • Ottoman Turks rise to power

  2. Era III 1450 - 1750 • Shift in power to the West • Declining emphasis of nomads • Gender relations remain patriarchal • World becomes smaller through trade (rise of sea trade) • Labor relations change – master/slave • Commercial leaders gain wealth • Centralization of governments • Emergence of nation-states • Age of gunpowder • New intellectual ideas: Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Enlightenment in Europe

  3. European Exploration New trade routes New technologies compass, astrolabe, ship building, gunpowder Economic goals Political goals Religious goals

  4. Exploration: Portugal • Strategic location • Trade relations with Muslim nations • Royal family supported exploration – Prince Henry the Navigator • Naval experience • Strategy: explore Africa coast – Indian Ocean • Colonization: trading ports in S and SE Asia

  5. Conquest: Spain • Christopher Columbus • Colonization in Caribbean • Treaty of Tordesillas – 1494 (Spain/Portugal) • Conquistadors • Cortez in Mexico - Aztecs • Pizarro in Peru - Inca • Took over existing tributary empires: labor (mita), silver, gold, and foodstuffs • Established viceroys, social hierarchy, encomiendas • Demographic impact: disease, death, and mestizos

  6. The Columbian Exchange

  7. Expansion of Empires • Spain • Portugal • England • France • The Netherlands (Dutch) • Russia • Ming and Qing • Ottoman • Mughal • Safavid

  8. Empires: England • Limited Monarchy and the emergence of Constitutional Monarchy • Civil Wars • Enlightenment ideas • Colonies in Americas • British East India Company

  9. Empires: France • Absolute Monarchy • King Louis XIV • “ I am the State” • Versailles • Mercantilism • Export more than import • Colonies buy from mother country only • Territorial expansion in Europe and fur-trading colonies in Saint Domingue (Haiti) and New France (Quebec)

  10. Empires: The Netherlands • Constitutional Monarchy • Dutch East India Company • Sought monopolies and large profits. • North America • fur trade along the Hudson river, New Amsterdam • Caribbean islands for plantation settlements • Capetown South Africa – way station • Southeast Asia (Indonesia) – spice trade

  11. Empires: Russia • Creation of Russian empire • Increasing absolutist rule and territorial expansion by 16th Century – Ivan the Terrible • Role of Russian Orthodox Church • Peter the Great accelerated westernization process • St. Petersburg

  12. Gunpowder Empires Abbasid Caliphate loses power in 1200s – Chaos after Mongols then strong Islamic empires emerge: • Ottoman Empire • Safavid Empire – Persia • Mughal Empire – India • Extremely centralized • Technologically advanced • Militarily powerful

  13. Empires: Ottoman 1281-1914 Central Asia, migrated to Asia Minor, expanded • Conquer Byzantine Empire, Eastern Europe, Parts of Middle East • Tolerant of other faiths • Conquered large territory • Multi-ethnic empire • Janissaries • Suleiman the Magnificent • Golden Age

  14. Empires: Mughal India 1556-1739 Mughal = Persian word for Mongol • Akbar • Expanded empire through North and Central India, Pakistan and Afghanistan • Established a bureaucracy • Combined Hindu and Muslim beliefs • Shah Jahan – patron of the arts • Creation of TajMajal • Economy boomed - textile (cotton) trade –to Europeans

  15. Empires: Safavid Persia • Shia Islam • Forced conversion • Decline in rights of women

  16. Empires: Ming China 1368-1644Manchu Qing Dynasty 1644 - 1912 MING • Removed Mongols from power– returned to Chinese traditions – Confucianism, civil service exams • Brief attempt at exploration/trade • Zheng He • Pulled back from trade • Incompetent rule, nomadic pressures, too costly QING • Manchu: pastoral nomads from North • Manchus held superior positions • Early Qing economic “golden age” • Xenophobic foreign policy, but trade with Europeans began (wanted Chinese tea, porcelain, silk, etc)

  17. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

  18. Empires: Tokugawa Japan1600 - 1853 • Warring States Period 1467 – 1600 • Independent regions fighting each other • Daimyo (feudal lords) • Samurai – bushido (way of the warrior) • Tokuqawa family – shogun - Ruled from Edo (Tokyo) • Centralized authority, increased social stratification • Alternate attendance • Economic growth – merchant class, manufacturing • Drama, art, architecture

  19. Coercive Labor Systems Emerge • Slavery before Trans-Atlantic slave trade • Spanish use of mita and encomiendas • Early slave systems in South America and Caribbean • Reasons why Europeans turned to African slaves • Triangular Trade and The Middle Passage • What impact did it have on Africa? • Nature of slave life on sugar plantations

  20. Commodities: Sugar, Silver, Slaves • African slave trade Notice the primary destinations

  21. Demographic and Environmental Changes • Why did Europe’s population rise in this period? • Why did America’s population decline? • Overall little change in Africa though some places lost population. Which ones? • Increase in Asian population • Deforestation and soil exhaustion in Americas

  22. Cultural and Intellectual Developments in Europe • Renaissance: humanism, secularism, classicism • Scientific Revolution • The Protestant Reformation • Beginning of enlightenment ideas