Post Classical Age: 1200-1450. Reorganization of the Post Classical World Continuity and Change. Organization, Consolidation a nd Migration of Eurasian Steppe people. European Interests turned outward. Reading Quiz. Identify two regions taken by the Mongol conquests of the 13 th C.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Post Classical Age: 1200-1450 Reorganization of the Post Classical World Continuity and Change
Organization, Consolidation and Migration of Eurasian Steppe people European Interests turned outward
Reading Quiz • Identify two regions taken by the Mongol conquests of the 13th C. • Identify one factor that contributed to the decline of PaxMongolica? • How did the development of commerce and money challenge the feudal system of exchange? • Why is the formation of Parliaments and the Magna Carta important in understanding the development of the West? • What changes were taking place specifically in Italy in the late Middle Age and why?
Western Europe High Middle Ages
Seljuk Turks (Seljuk Sultanate) • Migrated into Near East 10th Century • Established role of Sultan as protector of Abbasid Caliph • Origins of Ottoman Turks
Impact of the Crusades History’s most successful failure…
Trade • Increased Demand for goods- economic growth • Development of business opportunities • Agricultural & commercial revolution Exposure to goods & ideas Reawakening of Classical Age Scientific Knowledge - Universities Increased contact • Changing Social & Political Structure • Breakdown of Feudalism – rise of middle class • Political Consolidation – challenge to the church
Economy of the Medieval World • Agricultural Revolution: iron plows, horse collar and horse shoes, cleared lands, crop rotation, new crops, warmer climate • Population Increases… • After 1000… • Increased production & Specialization • New Business Practices • Partnerships, Credit, Banking
trade & commercial opportunities • new urban areas • Mediterranean trade • North & Baltic sea trade (Hanseatic League)
Greater urbanization • River cities • Italian cities
New Goods, New Ideas Or in many cases… old ideas? How was this new information received by the educated?
Medieval Universities Major Contributors St Thomas Aquinas Albertus Magnus William of Ockham
Scholasticism Created in the 13th century by the introduction of Aristotle's analytics, metaphysics and natural philosophy. • sophisticated logical methods to resolve apparent contradictions • Students argue from reason, experience, and authority (Church) • Emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference, and to resolve contradictions. • deductivereasoning
Medieval Masterpieces In the vernacular The Divine Comedy, 1321 Dante Alighieri The Canterbury Talesend of 14th c , Geoffrey Chaucer Architecture, Literature & Art Gothic Cathedrals Notre Dame Chartres Reims Cologne Santa Maria del Fiore Forerunners of the Renaissance Emergence of the… “The Artist” Giotto
Artistic Development High Middle Age
Creation of Modern political Europe Centralization of power New Monarchies
Political Developments Hundred Years War: increased power for both monarchies
100 Years War • Succession crisis over French Throne • Valois (French) - cousin • Plantagenet (English)- nephew • Intermittent fighting in France • Long bow • Use of Canon- gunpowder • Joan of Arc • Outcome • Further Centralization of power – England & France (Tudors AND Valois)
FRAGMENTATION CONTINUES GERMANY (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) ITALY
Middle Ages (600-1450) Germanic Invasions & Kingdoms • CHANGES… • Growth of Nation-States and Monarchies • Breakdown of political Feudal System • Growing Economic complexity • Changing Social Structure • Cultural Development • Intellectual Curiosity 9th Century Invasions, Feudalism High Middle Ages 476: Fall of Rome 1095: Pope Urban II launches 1st Crusade 800: Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Characteristics of the High Middle Age Increased economic opportunities (commercial revolution), New Monarchs and the development of nation-states supported breakdown of feudal social structure by … • Granting charters and encouraging a merchant class (mercantilism) • Staffing government-paid bureaucratic jobs with new middle class to undercut power of nobles • Providing protections and opportunities for peasants no longer tied to land (end of serfdom)
What roadblocks will Western Europe experience in their quest towards recovery? What Impact will these changes have on the power and prestige of the Church? Black Death Environmental Conditions – the Great Famine Catholic Church in the High Middle Ages
Environmental Factors Little Ice Age & The Great Famine The Black Death- Bubonic Plague Hunters in the Snow by Pieter Breughel. Hans Holbein: Dance of Death
The Plague: Black Death 1/3rd of European Population decimated Outbreaks: 1348, 1361, 1368, 1371, 1375, 1390, 1405 ---- 18th Century Economic and Social challenges: Cities worst-off, villages abandoned rise in Anti-Semitism social unrest - rebellion The victims ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors Boccaccio The Decameron
Continued agricultural revolution: forced diversification of agriculture & development of new technologies • Continued trade with greater demand for luxury goods • Fewer laborers, more land: Lessening power of numerous noble aristocrats • Greater need for centralized power/Monarch and services • Religious Fanaticism (mystics, flagellants)- failure of Church Positive Consequences?
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Albrecht Durer
Papal Complex at Avignon Gallican Church
Late Medieval Church • Corruption • Worldliness, • simony, pluralism • sale of indulgences • Calls for reform • John Wycliff (Lollards) • Jan Huss (Hussites) • Conciliarism
How does the development of the Western European Nation-state compare to the prosperous empires of the West African Sudanic Empires?
By 1450, Western Europe was set search out new opportunities to grow and expand… Monarchs directing purposeful growth of its nation-states(mercantilism) Economic prosperity (agriculture, manufacturing, trade) New Middle Class with excess capital for investment Rise of the West