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Unit 2 Timeline. 600-1450. WARNING!!. All slides prepared by high school students Ms. Oliver does not vouch for the accuracy of these slides- when in doubt, research. If you choose to print these, do so as handouts with six or more slides per page!. Conquest of Kush by Axum .

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Unit 2 timeline

Unit 2 Timeline



  • All slides prepared by high school students

  • Ms. Oliver does not vouch for the accuracy of these slides- when in doubt, research.

  • If you choose to print these, do so as handouts with six or more slides per page!

Conquest of kush by axum
Conquest of Kush by Axum

  • Date: 2000-1000 B.C.E.

  • Description: This empire overthrew the Libyan Dynasty that was running Egypt and toko Egypt over. Later they had to flee lack to Nubia after Assyrian attack.

  • Significance: This empire united the entire Nikle valley and restored Egypts glory.

Origins of the olmec
Origins of the Olmec

  • Date: 1200 BCE

  • Description:

    • The Olmec civilization was located in the humid jungles of southern Mexico. The Olmec created the America’s first civilization and were known as Mesoamerica’s “Mother Culture.” They flourished from 1200-400 B.C.E building pyramids, plazas, and monumental structures. They were very religious and worshiped the jaguar spirit and also directed a large network throughout Mesoamerica.

  • Significance

    • The later America civilizations relied on the technology and achievements of earlier cultures like the Olmec civilization to move forward. Their contributions greatly influence the Mayans. Olmec art styles, especially the use of the jaguar motif, can be seen in the pottery and sculpture of the later peoples in the region. Also, future Mesoamerican societies copied the Olmec pattern of urban design and built cities by combing pyramids, plazas, and monumental structures.

Kushan kingdom s development
Kushan Kingdom’s development

  • Date: around 1000 B.C.E.

  • Description:

    • Egypt’s domination of the Nubian Kingdom of Kush lasted for approx. 1000 years. During the time, Egyptian armies raided and even occupied Kush for a brief period of time. 1000 BCE, and Kush emerged as a regional power. Nubia would now establish its own Kushite dynasty on the throne of Egypt.

  • Significance:

    • Napata, capital of Kush, was a center of trade in the Nubian and Egyptian empires. Goods traded included pottery such as a vessel.

Arab takeover of nile valley
Arab takeover of Nile Valley

  • Date:1000 B.C.E.

  • Description:

    • As Egypt fell into decline around 1000 B.C.S., Kush was emerging as a regional power. Nubia would now establish its own Kushite dynasty on the throne of Egypt.

  • Significance:

    • Napata, capital of Kush, was a center of trade in the Nubian and Egyptian empires. Goods traded included pottery such as a vessel.

Establishment of ethiopia
Establishment of Ethiopia

  • Date: 980 B.C.

  • Description:

    - First verifiable kingdom to rise in Ethiopia was Axum.

  • Significance:

    -is widely considered as the site of the emergence of early Homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic 400,000 years ago.

Origins of buddhism
Origins of Buddhism

  • Date: 539 B.C.E.

    • Description: Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, in Northern India. According to scriptures, Siddhartha achieved enlightenment when meditating under a Bodhi Tree. After this self-realization, he finally discovered the true answers to the causes of suffering and started to preach his beliefs to society. We call him ‘The Buddha’ because the name means enlightenment in Sanskrit.

    • Significance: Before long, Buddha had attracted many disciples. Flocks of people would attend his daily mid-day lectures which he used to give in various towns and cities around Northern India. Today, Buddhism has evolved into the fourth most practiced religion in the world, behind Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism.

Bantu migration
Bantu Migration

  • Date: 500 B.C.E. to 1500 C.E.

  • Description: A group of people who traveled to the southern tip there by increasing their food supply. These people all spoke Bantu.

  • Significance: On their migration they learned many new types of crops and technologies, while spreading their own knowledge. The migration let their civilization survive and find more food.

Schisms of buddhism
Schisms of Buddhism

  • Date: 250 B.C.E. – 1st Century C.E.

  • Description: Some two centuries after the Buddha’s death, many Buddhist scholars began to disagree on certain ideas and beliefs. This led to a separation, or schism between Buddhists. The schism led to the formation of two major Buddhist Schools: The Theravada School and the Mahayana School.

  • Significance: After this schism, Buddhism began to spread even more rapidly. Theravada Buddhism spread towards Sri Lanka, Burma (now Myanmar), Thailand, and Laos. Mahayana Buddhism spread towards China, North Korea, South Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Japan.

End of the mauryan empire
End of the Mauryan Empire


232 B.C.E.


Asoka, a great, genuinely concerned for him pe0ple, leader of the MauryanEmipire died in 232 B.C.E. Soon following his death, the empire began to break up


The death of Asoka and the Mauryan Empire brought forth a period of turmoil which effected the entire subcontinent. Regional kings began challenging imperial government. Some rulers from southern India broke away from their empires.

Resurrection of the civil service system
Resurrection of the Civil Service System

  • Date: 141-87 BCE (Emperor Wudi’s reign)

  • Description

    • The Chinese adopted the Roman civil service system, which entailed giving government jobs to civilians who passed an exam.

  • Significance

    • This system allowed anybody who was qualified and who passed the exam to have a government job. They did not have to be in a high social class.

Chinese conquest of vietnam
Chinese conquest of Vietnam

  • Date: 111 B.C.E.

  • Description: Vietnam was originally taken over by the Qin Dynasty, but earned its independence. Over time, Vietnam was integrated with Chinese culture and traditions.

  • Significance: China was rapidly expanding, and Vietnam was under rule for many years, but it stood out with many rebellions even though it was influenced heavily by Chinese culture.

The building of teotihuacan
The building of Teotihuacan

  • Date: First Century AD

    • Description:

      • Teotihuacan was the first major civilization of central Mexico and its remains lie just outside of Mexico City. Their society was built in the Valley of Mexico, a mountain basin 7,000 feet above sea level. The villagers at this site began to plan and construct the largest monumental city of their time, even larger than Monte Alban in Oaxaca. At its peak in the sixth century, Teotihuacan had as many as 125,00 people, making it one of the largest cities in the world at that time. At the heart of the city was the giant, 200 ft tall Pyramid of the Sun.

  • Significance:

    • The arts and designs of the Teotihuacan were preserved throughout Mesoamerica. Their city later served as a basic layout for future civilizations.

Fall of the han dynasty
Fall of the Han Dynasty

  • Date: Early 1st century-early 3rd century

  • Description

    • The Han began to decline when rulers lost interest in ruling and gained it in the luxuries of court life. The influence and power of the central government began to decline and the Han finally ended.

  • Significance

    • This decline challenged the strength of Confucian values and sent China into an extended period of war and destruction. Forces from the Gobi desert took advantage of their weakness and invaded Northern China.

Development of paper woodblock printing
Development of paper/woodblock printing

  • Date: paper=105A.D. woodblock printing=700s A.D.

  • Description: Paper used for books and messages that used to be written on silk. Woodblock printing, one block in which a whole page was cut.

  • Significance: paper- made books more available and education spread, expanded bureaucracy. Woodblock printing- faster than writing.

Trans saharan trade routes
Trans-Saharan trade routes

  • Date: 200 C.E.

  • Description: Trade from Western African empire across the Sahara to Europe. Salt and gold were the main goods transported with the use of camels.

  • Significance: This trade also exchange technologies and other cultures. This helped spread Islam into Africa.

Origins of the mayas
Origins of the Mayas

  • Date: 250 CE

  • Description:

    • Along the Golf Coast in the periods of 1200-400 BCE the Mayans were also evolving. They took on Olmec influences, blending them with their own local customs. By 250 CE the Mayan civilization began to flourish. The period from 250-900 CE is known as the classical period during Mayan civilization. During this time they built spectacular cities like Tikal. Most of their cities featured giant pyramids, temples, palaces, and elaborate stone carvings dedicated to gods and important rulers.

    • Significance:

      • The Mayan beliefs led to the development of the calendar, mathematics, and astronomy. They developed a 260- day religious calendar and a 365 solar calendar. They calculated the solar year at 365.2420 days (only .0002 days off. They also developed the most advanced writing system in the Ancient Americas. They recorded information in a bark-paper book called the codex.

Rise of the gupta empire
Rise of the Gupta Empire

Date: 320 C.E.


-Following the 500 years of turmoil, a strong leader named Chandra Gupta came to power. He came to power when he married the daughter of an old, influential royal family.


- After all the turmoil, India began to fall back into place with the rise of the Gupta Empire.

Buddhism s arrival in china
Buddhism’s Arrival in China

  • Date: 399 C.E.

  • Description: Buddhism arrived in the 1-2nd Century by missionaries and merchants on the Silk Road.

  • Significance: The religion affected the politics and literature of Chinese people.

Adoption of the equal field system
Adoption of the “Equal Field System”

  • Date: 485 CE

  • Description

    • Chinese adults were given a fixed amount of land and were forced to pay a percentage of the produce as taxes. When the owner died, the land was returned to the government.

  • Significance

    • This system raised crop production until its decline. It declined when the population began to grow and people tended to hold the land permanently within their family.

Clovis conversion to christianity
Clovis’ conversion to Christianity

  • Date: 496

  • Description: Clovis, leader of the Franks, converted to Christianity when he feared losing in battle to another Germanic army.

  • Significance: It linked the Franks and the Church, two dominant powers in Europe, and Christianity was secured as the religion of Europe.

Rise of monasticism
Rise of Monasticism

  • Date: Approximately 520

  • Description: To help the Church adapt to rural life, monasteries and convents were developed, where men and women gave up their rights and became “servants of God”.

  • Significance: Monasteries were the most educated people in the time, and preserved literacy, education, and many classic works.

Reign of justinian
Reign of Justinian

  • Date: 527-565 CE

  • Description

    • Emperor Justinian ruled Eastern Rome and created the Justianian Code. He also rebuilt the capitol city, Constantinople, and built the Hagia Sophia

  • Significance

    • Justinian recaptured many lands lost during the collapse of Western Rome. He unified Roman Law and during his reign, Byzantine culture flourished.

Founding of the sui dynasty
Founding of the Sui Dynasty

  • Date: 589 CE

  • Description

    • After Han Dynasty collapsed China was conquered and unorganized for 350 years. In 589 Emperor Sui Wendi united Northern and Southern China and declared himself the first emperor of the Sui Dynasty.

  • Significance

    • The Sui restored central government and set up the Empire for China’s golden age under the Tang and Song Dynasties.

Building of the grand canal
Building of the Grand Canal

  • Date: 589-618

  • Description

    • The Sui emperors greatest accomplishment.

    • Connected the Huang He and Yangtze Rivers.

    • Tens of thousands of peasant men and women worked for five years.

  • Significance

    • The canal provided a vital trade route for trade between the northern cities and the southern rice-producing region of the Yangtze delta.

Japan s 17 article constitution
Japan’s 17-Article Constitution

  • Date: 604 C.E.

  • Description: Not so much a document of rules and laws, but focused on morals and virtues expected by government officials.

  • Significance: This document was created to insure a smooth state. Earliest moral documents.

Overthrow of the sui by the tang
Overthrow of the Sui by the Tang

  • Date: 618

  • Description

    • The endless labor on state projects turned people against the Sui and caused them to revolt. The Tang took over under Tang Taizon’s rule.

  • Significance

    • The Tang reconquered northern and western lands that China lost since the decline of the Han.

    • Expanded network of roads and canals started by Sui.

Expansion of the silk road
Expansion of the Silk Road

  • Date: around 618-907 (Tang Dynasty)

  • Description

    • Guild began to appear along the Silk Road. Ocean routes were added and merchants enganged in shipping and wholesale/retail trade.

  • Significance

    • This growth contributed to cultural diffusion and economic growth along the Silk Road.

The hygrah
The Hygrah

  • Date: 622, Entered into Mecca in 630

  • Description: Muhammad and his followers set out on a migration 200 miles to the north of Mecca. Sent supporters ahead of himself first.

  • Significance: During the Hygrah (migration) he attracted many followers. Became the military leader between Mecca and Medina.

Muhammad s conquest of mecca
Muhammad’s conquest of Mecca

  • Date: 630

  • Description: The profit and 10,00 followers marched to the outskirts of Mecca. On facing defeat. Muhammad entered the city in triumph.

  • Significance: Most Meccans pledged to Muhammad and converted to Islam. They joined the Umma.

Death of muhammad
Death of Muhammad

  • Date: 632

  • Description: Died at the age of 62. His successors

  • Significance: Had taken great strides toward unifying the Arabian peninsula. After Muhammad had died, the community was faced with crisis.

Arab expansion
Arab expansion

  • Date:

  • Description: By the time Abu-Bakr died in 643 the Muslim state controlled all of Arabia. The next two Caliphs continued to expand Muslim territory, Eastward and Westward.

  • Significance: The result of the expansion was the split of the Shi’a and the Sunni.

Battle of yarmuk
Battle of Yarmuk

  • Date: 636

  • Description: Fought between the Arab general and thee Byzantine Emperor Heraclius. Fought to put a stop to Muslim expansion in Europe.

  • Significance: Established Muslim supremacy in the Syrian region.

Taiki reforms
Taiki reforms

  • Date: 645

  • Description: Doctrines written uniting Japan bring greater centralization and to enhance power of imperial court.

  • Significance: They were used to learn writing, literature, religion, architecture.

Assassination of caliph muhammad ali
Assassination of (caliph) Muhammad Ali

  • Date: 661

  • Description: Assassinated by the Muawiya, a governor of Syria.

  • Significance: The elective system of choosing a caliph died with him.

Spread of islam to north america
Spread of Islam to North America

  • Date:670

  • Description:

    • By 670, Muslims ruled Egypt and entered the Maghrib. As Islam spread, some Africans converted to Islam. African Muslim rulers based government upon Islamic law.

  • Significance:

    • Islamic law helped bring order to Muslim states. Provided state with a set of values that shaped a common identity.

Arrival of islamic traders in southeast asia
Arrival of Islamic Traders in Southeast Asia

  • Date: 8th Century C.E.

  • Description: With the arrival of Islamic traders in Southeast Asia, the people adopted certain aspects from Islam. It also increased international trade between Southeast Asia and the Middle East.

  • Significance: This led to many trade opportunities for the Middle East and Southeast Asia, while also spreading Islamic views.

Viking and magyar invasions
Viking and Magyar Invasions

  • Date: 700

  • Description: Scandinavian Vikings and Romanian-area Magyars conquered western Europe and northern Italy.

  • Significance: These caused disorder and chaos and strengthened the feudal system.

Creation of the umayyad dynasty
Creation of the Umayyad Dynasty

  • Date:

  • Description: Family came to power and set up a hereditary system of succession. The Muslim capital was moved to Dameascus a distant city in the recently conquered Syria.

  • Significance: These actions gave rise to a fundamental gave rise to the Muslim community.

Nara period
Nara Period

  • Date: 710-784

  • Description: Period in which the Imperial Government was at Nara

  • Significance: The permanent establishment of Buddhism occurred during the Nara Period

Muslim arrival in india
Muslim Arrival in India

  • Date: 711 C.E.

  • Description: In 711 C.E., the Arab Muslims first arrived in India. They conquered the area known as Sind in the Indus River Valley (located in modern day Pakistan). From there, they slowly, but gradually, began to move in towards the central Deccan Plateau.

  • Significance: The arrival of the Muslims signaled a major event in Indian History, as Muslim culture slowly began to find its way in Indian Markets and Bazaars. Many great empires, such as the Mughal Empire ruled over India. Today, Islam is India’s second most populous religion.

Muslim assault on constantinople
Muslim assault on Constantinople

  • Date: 717-718

  • Description: The Byzantine Empire was in chaos, caused by the Arab raids. When Leo III came into control, and organized a military force to overtake the raiding Arabs. The raids no longer happened during the rest of Leo III reign.

  • Significance: Leo III defended Constantinople and provided continued strength to stop future Arab raids.

Battle of tours
Battle of Tours

  • Date: 732

  • Description

    • This battle was fought between the Franks, led by Charles Martel, and the invading Islamic army. It took place near the city of Tours, France. The Franks defeated the Islamic army and killed their leader.

  • Significance

    • This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula into Europe and is credited with preserving Christianity as the main religion of Europe.

Hussein s revolt against the umayyads
Hussein’s revolt against the Umayyads

  • Date: 750

  • Description: A revolt was led to overthrow the Umayyads and the establishment of the Abbasid Dynasty into what is now Iraq.

  • Significance: The Abbasid brought political, cultural, and economic change to the world of Islam.

Establishment of the abbasid dynasty
Establishment of the Abbasid Dynasty

  • Date: 750-1258 C.E.

  • Description: Dynasty started by Muhammad’s uncle in 750 that changed Islam’s politics, economy, and culture after Umayyad rule. Stressed religious orthodoxy and tried to get rid of distractions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims. This dynasty conquered several parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

  • Significance: The Abbasid Dynasty ruled the Arab world between 758-1258 AD, and so is considered the medieval period for Islamic civilization. This empire caused several of areas to convert to Muslim and be equal to Arabic Muslims. This empire also strengthened and made Islam wealthier.

Building of baghdad
Building of Baghdad

  • Date: 762

  • Description: This is the city that the Abbasids constructed to be their capital. This city became a major trade, culture, and learning center. Under Abbasid rule, Baghdad became a city of museums, hospitals, libraries, and mosques. 

  • Significance: This city’s trade brought several new technologies and crops from several other places in the world. It also promoted culture and idea exchange. Most of the famous Muslim scholars from the 9th to 13th centuries had their educational roots in Baghdad. 

Rule of harun al rashid
Rule of Harun al-Rashid

  • Date: 786-809

  • Description: He was an Abbasid Ruler that brought their empire into a golden age of Abbasid caliphate. He was the fifth Abbasid caliph. Harun was a scholar and poet, and was well versed in history, tradition and poetry. His dignified behavior is extolled by historians.

  • Significance: This golden age of the Abbasid caliphate brought more prosperity, learning, and cultural strength to the Abbasid empire. He was also noted for his participation in the Muslim holy war against the Byzantines and for the splendor of his court.

Heian period
Heian Period

  • Date: 794 – 1185 C.E.

  • Description: Last division of Classical Japanese history. Preceded by the Nara Period.

  • Significance: Period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism, and the Japanese Imperial Court were at their peak.

Rise of feudalism
Rise of Feudalism

  • Date: 9th century

  • Description: Feudal lords give protection to knights and serfs, and the knights and serfs give their services in exchange.

  • Significance: This separated society into distinct classes and lessened the power of a central government.

Origins of ghana
Origins of Ghana

  • Date: 800 C.E.

  • Description:

    • Located in the savanna region south of the Sahara. “Soninke region”.

    • By 700s, Soninke rulers of the kingdom Ghana were growing rich from taking the goods that traders carried through their territory.

    • Land of gold.

  • Significance:

    • Had access to vast amounts of gold (forest region south of savanna between Niger and Senegal rivers) and salt (Sahara) which were the two most important trade items.

Cyril and methodius conversion of the slavs
Cyril and Methodius’ conversion of the Slavs

  • Date: c. 800 CE

  • Description

    • Orthodox Christian Saints Cyril and Methodius began converting the Slavic people. They created the Cyrillic alphabet and translated the Bible to help convert them.

  • Significance

    • Orthodox missionaries helped spread Byzantine influences into the Slavic area.

Charlemagne s kingdom divided
Charlemagne’s kingdom divided

  • Date: 843

  • Charlemagne’s son (Louis the Pious) divided his father’s kingdom between his OWN sons: Loghair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German. They fought in a civil war until the Treaty of Verdun in 843.

  • Significance: The division of the empire weakened the Carolingian kings, and this allowed feudal lords to take control.

Decline of the maya
Decline of the Maya

  • Date: Late 800’s

  • Description

    • The decline of this prosperous civilization ended in a mystery. In the late 800’s, the Maya suddenly abandoned many of their cities. Some cities thrived for several more centuries, but invaders from the north, the Toltec, soon moved into the lands occupied by the Maya and took over. The decline of the Mayan Civilizations may have been due to population growth, disease, food shortages, famine, wars between city-states, or ecological damage.

  • Significance:

    • The Mayan’s created a great legacy that greatly helped the development of future civilizations. Their legacy paved the way for future generations like the Toltecs to build on their discoveries.

Fall of the tang
Fall of the Tang

  • Date: 907

  • Description

    • Imposed crushing taxes, bringing hardship to the people.

    • Couldn’t control the vast empire they had built

      • Arab armies defeated Chinese on Western frontier

      • Chinese rebels sacked and burned the capital at Chang’an and murdered the last Tang emperor, a child.

  • Significance

    • Led to the rise of the Song Dynasty.

Vietnamese independence
Vietnamese Independence

  • Date: 939

  • Description: After being under Chinese control for almost 1000 years, Vietnam became strong enough to break away from the weakened Tang dynasty.

  • Significance: This led to them becoming a separate empire, which eventually led to the Vietnam War.

Establishment of capetian dynasty
Establishment of Capetian Dynasty

  • Date: 940 CE

  • Description

    • This was the dynasty of the descendants of Hugh Capet. Hugh died in 996. The power was passed down from son to son until it finally ended when the last one died.

  • Significance

    • This is one of the oldest ‘dynasties’ in the world as it still exists, except the descendants do not have much power. During the Capetian Dynasty there were many conquests and the French gained lots of power. Later on the following powers lost battles and France became the small country that it is now.

Rise of the song dynasty
Rise of the Song Dynasty

  • Date: 960

  • Description

    • A Chinese general reunited China and proclaimed himself Song Taizu, the first Song emperor.

  • Significance

    • Ruling family of southern China and established the economic heartland of China. Increased trade with Northern China, nomads of Central Asia, and people of western Asia and Europe.

Holy roman empire established
Holy Roman Empire established

  • Date: 962

  • Description: Otto I (Otto the Great) was crowned emperor by the Pope after invading Italy. His empire was known as the Holy Roman Empire.

  • Significance: It was the strongest empire in Europe until 1100, when Italian nobles and the Church began to fear the control that German rulers had over Italy.

Lay investiture controversy
Lay investiture controversy

  • 11th century (1000s)

  • Description: Feudal lords and kings had the power of appointing church officials such as priests, however, reformers felt that the church should not be under any king’s power.

  • Significance: This was one of the first major reforms that separated the Church and the state.

Mahmud of ghazni s conquests
Mahmud of Ghazni’s conquests

  • Date: 11th Century C.E.

  • Description: Mahmud of Ghazni was the third ruler of his dynasty, and he led an expedition to conquer Northern India while spreading Muslim Faith.

  • Significance: Mahmud spread Islamic faith throughout India, and started campaigns aimed at seizing political control of Northern India.

Seljuk turks capture of baghdad
Seljuk Turks Capture of Baghdad

  • Date:1055

  • Description: Captured Baghdad in 1055, leader of Turks took over command of empire. Took baghdad over as Abbasids began to weaken.

  • Significance: Helped expand Turkish empire. Also weakened Abbasid empire more. Turks occupied eastern provinces of the Abbasids empire.

Norman conquest
Norman Conquest

  • Date: 1066 CE

  • Description

    • An invasion of England by William, duke of Normandy. The main and decisive battle was the Battle of Hastings, in which the Norman invaders conquered Britain.

  • Significance

    • The significance was the uniting of England and the establishment of Frank kings in Britain. It also laid out basic foundations of a central government.

Wang anshi reforms
Wang Anshi reforms

  • Date: 1070’s to early 1080’s

  • Description: The chief minister of the song shenzong emperor, tried to ward off the impending collapse of the dynasty by introducing sweeping reforms. He ran a government on a basic legalist assumption that could potentially increase resources and strength.

  • Significance: His reforms stressed analytical thinking rather than remote memorization of classics that had been key success among scholar gentry.

Battle of manzikert
Battle of Manzikert

  • Date: 1071

  • Description: Seljuk Turks had been threatening to invade the Byzantine empire for many years and finally with an army with almost as large as 100,000 men they invaded. Byzantine empire was taken over by the Turks after problems and commands.

  • Significance: Byzantine empire fell to the Turks.

Papacy of gregory viii
Papacy of Gregory VIII

  • Date: 1073-1085 CE

  • Description

    • The Papacy of Gregory VII was the rule of Gregory VII as the Pope of the Catholic Church. During it, he established a series of major reforms on the Church. He found himself in conflict with the German king Henry IV over separation of church from kings.

  • Significance

    • It helped establish a separation between the power of the Church and various kings and lords. It also started the Investiture Controversy.

Establishment of kievan rus
Establishment of Kievan Rus

  • Date: 1090 CE

  • Description

    • The Kievan empire was much like Greek City states, in which many small groups came together and formed a country. Vladimir then expanded it so that Russia got to be the size that it is today.

  • Significance

    • Although Russia is not a powerful country, it is big. This is probably the biggest significance of Kievan Russia. Russia was united for the first time and they had their own culture. Long down the line, this led to the powerful USSR.

The first crusade
The First Crusade

  • Date: 1096-1099

  • Description: Beginning of a series of crusades in the Holy Land and Christian ruled areas in the Mediterranean coast. The Muslim rulers were taken back. The Crusaders were called upon by the Pope to have people recapture the Holy land(Jerusalem). He says if you fight you will instantly be allowed in heaven.

  • Significance: Captured Jerusalem. Really resulted in people just fighting for money and not for God.

Development of swahili culture
Development of Swahili culture

  • Date: 1100 C.E.

  • Description:

    • Arab traders married African women (had a lot of contact with Bantu speakers). In time, people of mixed African and Arab ancestry led to the creation of Swahili, “people of the coast”.

  • Significance:

    • Created a common spoken Bantu language with many words borrowed from Arabic. Swahili is the official language of Tanzania and Kenya.

Period of southern song
Period of Southern Song

  • Date: 1127-1279

  • Description: This dynasty was ruled by Tang and was to be one of the most glorious in Chinese history.

  • Significance: It had new shifts in population, new patterns of trade and commerce, renewed urban expansion, and novel forms of artistic and literary expression.

Founding of plantagenet dynasty
Founding of Plantagenet Dynasty

  • Date: 1154 CE

  • Description

    • The Dynasty created under Henry VII. It was maintained by his sons and family. It was a dynasty of trouble as well as advances.

  • Significance

    • The Plantagenet Dynasty brought numerous changes under their reign, including the Magna Carta, and the Parliament. It also created some resentment to the kings.

Kamakura shogunate
Kamakura Shogunate

  • Date: 1185 – 1333 C.E.

  • Description: Military dictatorship in Japan headed by the shoguns, based in Kamakura.

  • Significance: The invading Huns were repelled many times until eventually the Kamakura Shogunates ran out of money and resources. This lead to their defeat and the decline of Japan.

Tamerlane s kingdom
Tamerlane’s kingdom

  • Date: 13th Century C.E.

  • Description: Tamerlane’s kingdom was located in the Uzbekistani city of Samarkand. Ruled by Tamerlane, this kingdom conquered territory all the way up to the Caspian Sea. The kingdom conquered many areas in the Middle East.

  • Significance: Under Tamerlane, this kingdom was a center of power, and conquered a vast amount of territory in Asia and the Middle East.

Song alliance with the mongols
Song Alliance with the Mongols

  • Date: early 13th century (1200)

  • Description

    • This alliance was formed to help the Song defend themselves against the Jurchen, impeding people from the north. The Mongols ended up becoming more of a threat than the Jurchen.

  • Significance

    • The Mongols were hungry for power and defeated the Jurchen themselves so they could turn on the already weakened Song and eliminate them, thus ending the Song Dynasty.

Aztec conquest of central mexico
Aztec conquest of central Mexico

  • Date- 1200 CE

  • Description-

    • The Aztec god, Huitzilopochtli told them to find a city of their own. To fulfill this request in 1428, the Aztecs formed a triple alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan. With a population between 5 and 5 million people, the Aztec state based its power on military conquest and the tribute gained from conquered people

  • Significance-

    • The Aztecs created important things like Chinapas to help the agricultural produce. They also created roadways and built the great city Tenochititlan. They were known for their pyramids and ritual sacrifices.

Fourth crusade
Fourth Crusade

  • Date: 1202-1204 CE

  • Description

    • Corrupt crusaders decide to attack, raid and loot the city of Constantinople. They succeed and the city is left with nearly nothing.

  • Significance

    • One of the causes of the schism. It split the church into Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholic.

Children s crusade
Children’s Crusade

  • Date: 1212 CE

  • Description

    • Thousands of children set out to go to the holy land, but many either died on the way or were kidnapped to go becomes slaves. Not many of them made it all the way there.

  • Significance

    • This massive failure marked the end of the crusades as a whole. This was the last major crusade. Overall it was a huge failure.

Magna carta
Magna Carta

  • Date: 1215 CE

  • Description

    • A feudal liberties agreement between King John and English Nobles. It formally limited the power of Monarchs and based relations between the King and Vassals to be mutual.

  • Significance

    • It was the basis of many laws and constitutions, and limited the power of Kings and Monarchs.

Mongols invade korea vietnam
Mongols invade Korea, Vietnam

  • Date: Korea-1231 Vietnam-1257

  • Description: The Mongols tried to conquer Vietnam and temporarily captured the capitol, Hanoi, but were forced to withdraw three times.

  • Strengthened Korea and Vietnam and led them to the successful places they currently are.

The mongol conquest of china
The Mongol Conquest of China

  • Date: 1234/1279

  • Description: Ogadai conquered Northern China in 1234. Southern China was defeated by Kublai Khan in 1279.

  • Significance: China was united for the first time in 300 years. It was open to more foreign trade and ideas.

Rise of mali
Rise of Mali

Date: 1235


Miners found new gold deposits farther east. This cause the most important trade routes to shift eastward, making the people of Mali wealthy, and they could seize power. Mali was founded by Mande-speaking people, who lived south of Ghana.


Had strong control of the trade routes.

Mongol expansion into the middle east
Mongol Expansion into the Middle East

  • Date: 1258

  • Description: A pastoral people who swept out of the Gobi Desert in early 13th century. They spread and conquered in 1258 under the rule of Hulegu and seized Persia and Mesopotamia (Spread to Middle East).

  • Significance: They brought an end to the caliphate at Baghdad.

Establishment of delhi sultanate
Establishment of Delhi Sultanate

  • Date: 1260 C.E.

  • Description: This was a succession of dynasties that lasted three hundred years. It ruled much of North and Central India. It was based in the city of Delhi.

  • Significance: It was significantly established in Delhi, in the very center of Northern India, which gave it a great start for the Sultanate Dynasty. Delhi grew to become one of Asia’s largest cities at that time (it still is today).

Mongol invasion of japan
Mongol Invasion of Japan

  • Date: 1266-1288

  • Description: Kublai Khan asks for aid. Japan refuses and Kublai starts a war by sending 30,000 troops. He attached again in 1281, they were defeated by them because of a typhoon causing numerous deaths.

  • Significance: Mongols finally were stopped for once Japanese though were unstable until the 1300’s until new rule came.

Marco polo s expedition to china
Marco Polo’s Expedition to China

  • Date: 1275

  • Description: An Italian trader who reached the court of Kublai Khan.

  • Significance: He made an account of his experiences which was the most informative of all the descriptions of Asia by Medieval European travelers. He spread information about Asia.

Reign of kublai khan
Reign of Kublai Khan

  • Date: 1279-1294

  • Description: Kublai spent almost his entire life in China. He built a square walled capital in modern day Beijing and he encouraged foreign trade.

  • Significance: He created the Yuan dynasty. Restored the Grand Canal and extended it north to Beijing. Restored China and opened it to new ideas.

Development of gun powder
Development of Gun Powder

  • Date: 1292

  • Description: Gunpowder could be used to shoot up fireworks or make explosive weapons. It is made out of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal.

  • Significance: It was first used for fireworks then transitioned to weapons. The technology spread west within 300 years. Gunpowder is a reflection of today’s modern weapons.

Ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga Shogunate

  • Date: 1333

  • Description: A coalition of powerful clans who overthrew the Kamakura Shogunate and tried to rebuild the Shogun Central Government System.

  • Significance: Although they attempted to fix the government, they couldn’t. This lead to many internal conflicts. The country was close to anarchy. This, eventually, caused a civil conflict known as the Onin War.

Rise of ming dynasty
Rise of Ming Dynasty

  • Date: 1369-1644

  • Description: The dynasty after the Mongol Rule. China was under the Ming Dynasty when the first Portuguese ships came to trade. Hongwu, son of a peasant, led rebel army that drove out the Mongols in 1368 and became the first emperor.

  • Significance: industrial and commercial sector increase in size, complexity, and technological capacity. Society achieved a level of stability and social tranquility. Political and economic power in countryside replaced by landed gentry, freehold farmers, and sharecroppers.

Foundation of yi dynasty
Foundation of Yi Dynasty

  • Date: 1392

  • Description: Yi Song-Gye founded the Yi dynasty after the Mongol decline.

  • Significance: Korean people were finally in control of their own government again, after being under Mongol control.

Yongle s excursions
Yongle’s Excursions

  • Date: 1405

  • Description: Yongle sent a fleet of Chinese trading ships, under the eunuch admiral Zhenghe, through the Strait of Malaca and out into the Indian ocean. They traveled far west (east coast of Africa) stopping at ports in South Asia.

  • Significance: Massive profits were made for their sponsors. Culminated the process of opening China to the wider world.

European arrival in west africa
European Arrival In West Africa

Date: 1441 C.E.

Description: Portuguese sailors obtained gold dust from traders on the western coast of Africa. The following year, Portuguese explorers returned from Africa with more gold dust and another cargo: ten Africans.

Significance: Provided cultural diffusion for Europeans.

Onin war
Onin War

  • Date: 1467 – 1477

  • Description: Led to destruction of the capital city Koyoto and the disintegration of the Shogunate.

  • Significance: Civil War which was led by warring of every state territorial war. Powerful aristocrats ruled large areas. Period was Zhou Dynasty.

Development of sikhism
Development of Sikhism

  • Date: 1499 C.E.

  • Description: Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak, who tried to fuse the religions of Hinduism and Islam. The belief was that God was the single reality and all else was an illusion.

  • Significance: The variety of classes in India, Sikhism was an effort to tie together two major religions (Islam and Hinduism) that existed in India at that time, to make India more equal and stable.

Creation of angkor kingdom
Creation of Angkor Kingdom

  • Date: 16th Century C.E.

  • Description: What is now Cambodia and the Burmese state of Pagun, the Angkor Kingdom was created on a wet rice economy. It’s capital city of Thom was heavily protected from rival Southeast Asian civilizations, meaning that it was a very powerful civilization.

  • Significance: It was the powerful state to emerge in mainland Southeast Asia during the 16th Century C.E.

Arrival of hernando cortes in mexico
Arrival of Hernando Cortes in Mexico

  • 1519

  • Defenition: Hernando Cortes arrived in Mexico and invaded and destroyed the capital of Aztec.

Arrival of pizarro in south america
Arrival of Pizarro in South America

  • Date: 1532

  • Description: Fansisco Pizarro conquered the Great Incan Empire in South America. After conquering the Incan civilization with his army of 30,000 people, he conquered the Americas, Guatemala, and the Maya in Yucatan.

  • Significance:With him Spain had created a rather large American Empire, and spread their Spanish culture through their captured people.

Chinese conquest of korea and japan
Chinese Conquest of Korea and Japan

  • Date: 1592 – 1598

  • Description: Chinese culture spread to Korea and Japan. Religion spreads to Japan.

  • Significance: New rule gets new ideas as well as public Buddhism is introduced.