Unit 2 Timeline 600-1450
WARNING!! • All slides prepared by high school students • Ms. Oliver does not vouch for the accuracy of these slides- when in doubt, research. • If you choose to print these, do so as handouts with six or more slides per page!
Conquest of Kush by Axum • Date: 2000-1000 B.C.E. • Description: This empire overthrew the Libyan Dynasty that was running Egypt and toko Egypt over. Later they had to flee lack to Nubia after Assyrian attack. • Significance: This empire united the entire Nikle valley and restored Egypts glory.
Origins of the Olmec • Date: 1200 BCE • Description: • The Olmec civilization was located in the humid jungles of southern Mexico. The Olmec created the America’s first civilization and were known as Mesoamerica’s “Mother Culture.” They flourished from 1200-400 B.C.E building pyramids, plazas, and monumental structures. They were very religious and worshiped the jaguar spirit and also directed a large network throughout Mesoamerica. • Significance • The later America civilizations relied on the technology and achievements of earlier cultures like the Olmec civilization to move forward. Their contributions greatly influence the Mayans. Olmec art styles, especially the use of the jaguar motif, can be seen in the pottery and sculpture of the later peoples in the region. Also, future Mesoamerican societies copied the Olmec pattern of urban design and built cities by combing pyramids, plazas, and monumental structures.
Kushan Kingdom’s development • Date: around 1000 B.C.E. • Description: • Egypt’s domination of the Nubian Kingdom of Kush lasted for approx. 1000 years. During the time, Egyptian armies raided and even occupied Kush for a brief period of time. 1000 BCE, and Kush emerged as a regional power. Nubia would now establish its own Kushite dynasty on the throne of Egypt. • Significance: • Napata, capital of Kush, was a center of trade in the Nubian and Egyptian empires. Goods traded included pottery such as a vessel.
Arab takeover of Nile Valley • Date:1000 B.C.E. • Description: • As Egypt fell into decline around 1000 B.C.S., Kush was emerging as a regional power. Nubia would now establish its own Kushite dynasty on the throne of Egypt. • Significance: • Napata, capital of Kush, was a center of trade in the Nubian and Egyptian empires. Goods traded included pottery such as a vessel.
Establishment of Ethiopia • Date: 980 B.C. • Description: - First verifiable kingdom to rise in Ethiopia was Axum. • Significance: -is widely considered as the site of the emergence of early Homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic 400,000 years ago.
Origins of Buddhism • Date: 539 B.C.E. • Description: Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, in Northern India. According to scriptures, Siddhartha achieved enlightenment when meditating under a Bodhi Tree. After this self-realization, he finally discovered the true answers to the causes of suffering and started to preach his beliefs to society. We call him ‘The Buddha’ because the name means enlightenment in Sanskrit. • Significance: Before long, Buddha had attracted many disciples. Flocks of people would attend his daily mid-day lectures which he used to give in various towns and cities around Northern India. Today, Buddhism has evolved into the fourth most practiced religion in the world, behind Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism.
Bantu Migration • Date: 500 B.C.E. to 1500 C.E. • Description: A group of people who traveled to the southern tip there by increasing their food supply. These people all spoke Bantu. • Significance: On their migration they learned many new types of crops and technologies, while spreading their own knowledge. The migration let their civilization survive and find more food.
Schisms of Buddhism • Date: 250 B.C.E. – 1st Century C.E. • Description: Some two centuries after the Buddha’s death, many Buddhist scholars began to disagree on certain ideas and beliefs. This led to a separation, or schism between Buddhists. The schism led to the formation of two major Buddhist Schools: The Theravada School and the Mahayana School. • Significance: After this schism, Buddhism began to spread even more rapidly. Theravada Buddhism spread towards Sri Lanka, Burma (now Myanmar), Thailand, and Laos. Mahayana Buddhism spread towards China, North Korea, South Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Japan.
End of the Mauryan Empire Date 232 B.C.E. Description Asoka, a great, genuinely concerned for him pe0ple, leader of the MauryanEmipire died in 232 B.C.E. Soon following his death, the empire began to break up Significance The death of Asoka and the Mauryan Empire brought forth a period of turmoil which effected the entire subcontinent. Regional kings began challenging imperial government. Some rulers from southern India broke away from their empires.
Resurrection of the Civil Service System • Date: 141-87 BCE (Emperor Wudi’s reign) • Description • The Chinese adopted the Roman civil service system, which entailed giving government jobs to civilians who passed an exam. • Significance • This system allowed anybody who was qualified and who passed the exam to have a government job. They did not have to be in a high social class.
Chinese conquest of Vietnam • Date: 111 B.C.E. • Description: Vietnam was originally taken over by the Qin Dynasty, but earned its independence. Over time, Vietnam was integrated with Chinese culture and traditions. • Significance: China was rapidly expanding, and Vietnam was under rule for many years, but it stood out with many rebellions even though it was influenced heavily by Chinese culture.
The building of Teotihuacan • Date: First Century AD • Description: • Teotihuacan was the first major civilization of central Mexico and its remains lie just outside of Mexico City. Their society was built in the Valley of Mexico, a mountain basin 7,000 feet above sea level. The villagers at this site began to plan and construct the largest monumental city of their time, even larger than Monte Alban in Oaxaca. At its peak in the sixth century, Teotihuacan had as many as 125,00 people, making it one of the largest cities in the world at that time. At the heart of the city was the giant, 200 ft tall Pyramid of the Sun. • Significance: • The arts and designs of the Teotihuacan were preserved throughout Mesoamerica. Their city later served as a basic layout for future civilizations.
Fall of the Han Dynasty • Date: Early 1st century-early 3rd century • Description • The Han began to decline when rulers lost interest in ruling and gained it in the luxuries of court life. The influence and power of the central government began to decline and the Han finally ended. • Significance • This decline challenged the strength of Confucian values and sent China into an extended period of war and destruction. Forces from the Gobi desert took advantage of their weakness and invaded Northern China.
Development of paper/woodblock printing • Date: paper=105A.D. woodblock printing=700s A.D. • Description: Paper used for books and messages that used to be written on silk. Woodblock printing, one block in which a whole page was cut. • Significance: paper- made books more available and education spread, expanded bureaucracy. Woodblock printing- faster than writing.
Trans-Saharan trade routes • Date: 200 C.E. • Description: Trade from Western African empire across the Sahara to Europe. Salt and gold were the main goods transported with the use of camels. • Significance: This trade also exchange technologies and other cultures. This helped spread Islam into Africa.
Origins of the Mayas • Date: 250 CE • Description: • Along the Golf Coast in the periods of 1200-400 BCE the Mayans were also evolving. They took on Olmec influences, blending them with their own local customs. By 250 CE the Mayan civilization began to flourish. The period from 250-900 CE is known as the classical period during Mayan civilization. During this time they built spectacular cities like Tikal. Most of their cities featured giant pyramids, temples, palaces, and elaborate stone carvings dedicated to gods and important rulers. • Significance: • The Mayan beliefs led to the development of the calendar, mathematics, and astronomy. They developed a 260- day religious calendar and a 365 solar calendar. They calculated the solar year at 365.2420 days (only .0002 days off. They also developed the most advanced writing system in the Ancient Americas. They recorded information in a bark-paper book called the codex.
Rise of the Gupta Empire Date: 320 C.E. Description: -Following the 500 years of turmoil, a strong leader named Chandra Gupta came to power. He came to power when he married the daughter of an old, influential royal family. Significance: - After all the turmoil, India began to fall back into place with the rise of the Gupta Empire.
Buddhism’s Arrival in China • Date: 399 C.E. • Description: Buddhism arrived in the 1-2nd Century by missionaries and merchants on the Silk Road. • Significance: The religion affected the politics and literature of Chinese people.
Adoption of the “Equal Field System” • Date: 485 CE • Description • Chinese adults were given a fixed amount of land and were forced to pay a percentage of the produce as taxes. When the owner died, the land was returned to the government. • Significance • This system raised crop production until its decline. It declined when the population began to grow and people tended to hold the land permanently within their family.
Clovis’ conversion to Christianity • Date: 496 • Description: Clovis, leader of the Franks, converted to Christianity when he feared losing in battle to another Germanic army. • Significance: It linked the Franks and the Church, two dominant powers in Europe, and Christianity was secured as the religion of Europe.
Rise of Monasticism • Date: Approximately 520 • Description: To help the Church adapt to rural life, monasteries and convents were developed, where men and women gave up their rights and became “servants of God”. • Significance: Monasteries were the most educated people in the time, and preserved literacy, education, and many classic works.
Reign of Justinian • Date: 527-565 CE • Description • Emperor Justinian ruled Eastern Rome and created the Justianian Code. He also rebuilt the capitol city, Constantinople, and built the Hagia Sophia • Significance • Justinian recaptured many lands lost during the collapse of Western Rome. He unified Roman Law and during his reign, Byzantine culture flourished.
Founding of the Sui Dynasty • Date: 589 CE • Description • After Han Dynasty collapsed China was conquered and unorganized for 350 years. In 589 Emperor Sui Wendi united Northern and Southern China and declared himself the first emperor of the Sui Dynasty. • Significance • The Sui restored central government and set up the Empire for China’s golden age under the Tang and Song Dynasties.
Building of the Grand Canal • Date: 589-618 • Description • The Sui emperors greatest accomplishment. • Connected the Huang He and Yangtze Rivers. • Tens of thousands of peasant men and women worked for five years. • Significance • The canal provided a vital trade route for trade between the northern cities and the southern rice-producing region of the Yangtze delta.
Japan’s 17-Article Constitution • Date: 604 C.E. • Description: Not so much a document of rules and laws, but focused on morals and virtues expected by government officials. • Significance: This document was created to insure a smooth state. Earliest moral documents.
Overthrow of the Sui by the Tang • Date: 618 • Description • The endless labor on state projects turned people against the Sui and caused them to revolt. The Tang took over under Tang Taizon’s rule. • Significance • The Tang reconquered northern and western lands that China lost since the decline of the Han. • Expanded network of roads and canals started by Sui.
Expansion of the Silk Road • Date: around 618-907 (Tang Dynasty) • Description • Guild began to appear along the Silk Road. Ocean routes were added and merchants enganged in shipping and wholesale/retail trade. • Significance • This growth contributed to cultural diffusion and economic growth along the Silk Road.
The Hygrah • Date: 622, Entered into Mecca in 630 • Description: Muhammad and his followers set out on a migration 200 miles to the north of Mecca. Sent supporters ahead of himself first. • Significance: During the Hygrah (migration) he attracted many followers. Became the military leader between Mecca and Medina.
Muhammad’s conquest of Mecca • Date: 630 • Description: The profit and 10,00 followers marched to the outskirts of Mecca. On facing defeat. Muhammad entered the city in triumph. • Significance: Most Meccans pledged to Muhammad and converted to Islam. They joined the Umma.
Death of Muhammad • Date: 632 • Description: Died at the age of 62. His successors • Significance: Had taken great strides toward unifying the Arabian peninsula. After Muhammad had died, the community was faced with crisis.
Arab expansion • Date: • Description: By the time Abu-Bakr died in 643 the Muslim state controlled all of Arabia. The next two Caliphs continued to expand Muslim territory, Eastward and Westward. • Significance: The result of the expansion was the split of the Shi’a and the Sunni.
Battle of Yarmuk • Date: 636 • Description: Fought between the Arab general and thee Byzantine Emperor Heraclius. Fought to put a stop to Muslim expansion in Europe. • Significance: Established Muslim supremacy in the Syrian region.
Taiki reforms • Date: 645 • Description: Doctrines written uniting Japan bring greater centralization and to enhance power of imperial court. • Significance: They were used to learn writing, literature, religion, architecture.
Assassination of (caliph) Muhammad Ali • Date: 661 • Description: Assassinated by the Muawiya, a governor of Syria. • Significance: The elective system of choosing a caliph died with him.
Spread of Islam to North America • Date:670 • Description: • By 670, Muslims ruled Egypt and entered the Maghrib. As Islam spread, some Africans converted to Islam. African Muslim rulers based government upon Islamic law. • Significance: • Islamic law helped bring order to Muslim states. Provided state with a set of values that shaped a common identity.
Arrival of Islamic Traders in Southeast Asia • Date: 8th Century C.E. • Description: With the arrival of Islamic traders in Southeast Asia, the people adopted certain aspects from Islam. It also increased international trade between Southeast Asia and the Middle East. • Significance: This led to many trade opportunities for the Middle East and Southeast Asia, while also spreading Islamic views.
Viking and Magyar Invasions • Date: 700 • Description: Scandinavian Vikings and Romanian-area Magyars conquered western Europe and northern Italy. • Significance: These caused disorder and chaos and strengthened the feudal system.
Creation of the Umayyad Dynasty • Date: • Description: Family came to power and set up a hereditary system of succession. The Muslim capital was moved to Dameascus a distant city in the recently conquered Syria. • Significance: These actions gave rise to a fundamental gave rise to the Muslim community.
Nara Period • Date: 710-784 • Description: Period in which the Imperial Government was at Nara • Significance: The permanent establishment of Buddhism occurred during the Nara Period
Muslim Arrival in India • Date: 711 C.E. • Description: In 711 C.E., the Arab Muslims first arrived in India. They conquered the area known as Sind in the Indus River Valley (located in modern day Pakistan). From there, they slowly, but gradually, began to move in towards the central Deccan Plateau. • Significance: The arrival of the Muslims signaled a major event in Indian History, as Muslim culture slowly began to find its way in Indian Markets and Bazaars. Many great empires, such as the Mughal Empire ruled over India. Today, Islam is India’s second most populous religion.
Muslim assault on Constantinople • Date: 717-718 • Description: The Byzantine Empire was in chaos, caused by the Arab raids. When Leo III came into control, and organized a military force to overtake the raiding Arabs. The raids no longer happened during the rest of Leo III reign. • Significance: Leo III defended Constantinople and provided continued strength to stop future Arab raids.
Battle of Tours • Date: 732 • Description • This battle was fought between the Franks, led by Charles Martel, and the invading Islamic army. It took place near the city of Tours, France. The Franks defeated the Islamic army and killed their leader. • Significance • This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula into Europe and is credited with preserving Christianity as the main religion of Europe.
Hussein’s revolt against the Umayyads • Date: 750 • Description: A revolt was led to overthrow the Umayyads and the establishment of the Abbasid Dynasty into what is now Iraq. • Significance: The Abbasid brought political, cultural, and economic change to the world of Islam.
Establishment of the Abbasid Dynasty • Date: 750-1258 C.E. • Description: Dynasty started by Muhammad’s uncle in 750 that changed Islam’s politics, economy, and culture after Umayyad rule. Stressed religious orthodoxy and tried to get rid of distractions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims. This dynasty conquered several parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. • Significance: The Abbasid Dynasty ruled the Arab world between 758-1258 AD, and so is considered the medieval period for Islamic civilization. This empire caused several of areas to convert to Muslim and be equal to Arabic Muslims. This empire also strengthened and made Islam wealthier.
Building of Baghdad • Date: 762 • Description: This is the city that the Abbasids constructed to be their capital. This city became a major trade, culture, and learning center. Under Abbasid rule, Baghdad became a city of museums, hospitals, libraries, and mosques. • Significance: This city’s trade brought several new technologies and crops from several other places in the world. It also promoted culture and idea exchange. Most of the famous Muslim scholars from the 9th to 13th centuries had their educational roots in Baghdad.
Rule of Harun al-Rashid • Date: 786-809 • Description: He was an Abbasid Ruler that brought their empire into a golden age of Abbasid caliphate. He was the fifth Abbasid caliph. Harun was a scholar and poet, and was well versed in history, tradition and poetry. His dignified behavior is extolled by historians. • Significance: This golden age of the Abbasid caliphate brought more prosperity, learning, and cultural strength to the Abbasid empire. He was also noted for his participation in the Muslim holy war against the Byzantines and for the splendor of his court.
Heian Period • Date: 794 – 1185 C.E. • Description: Last division of Classical Japanese history. Preceded by the Nara Period. • Significance: Period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism, and the Japanese Imperial Court were at their peak.
Rise of Feudalism • Date: 9th century • Description: Feudal lords give protection to knights and serfs, and the knights and serfs give their services in exchange. • Significance: This separated society into distinct classes and lessened the power of a central government.