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Adult Suicide in Hong Kong SAR 香港的成人自杀. Sandra Chan Associate Professor Department of Psychiatry The Chinese University of Hong Kong 香港中文大学 精神科学系陈秀雯副教授. Completed suicide 自杀已遂. Sources of Mortality statistics in HK- A surveillance system enforced by Judicial System.

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adult suicide in hong kong sar

Adult Suicide in Hong Kong SAR香港的成人自杀

Sandra Chan

Associate Professor

Department of PsychiatryThe Chinese University of Hong Kong

香港中文大学

精神科学系陈秀雯副教授

sources of mortality statistics in hk a surveillance system enforced by judicial system
Sources of Mortality statistics in HK-A surveillance system enforced by Judicial System

As part of the Judicial System of HK, there exists a long-standing mandatory death enquiry system (Coroner’s Inquest) to investigate :

  • “Dead-on-arrival” at the Emergency Room;
  • “Deaths occurring within 24 hours of admission to hospital”;
  • Suspected murder;
  • Suspected suicide;
  • Dead body found in public places or private premises;
  • Deaths occurring in hospital anytime after admission that cannot be satisfactorily explained by known medical conditions;

The Coroner’s court works closely with the Police Department, Forensic Pathologist and Clinical Pathologist who gather information related to the circumstances surrounding death.

slide4
香港死亡率统计来源—司法制度中执行的监察系统香港死亡率统计来源—司法制度中执行的监察系统

作为香港司法制度中的一部份,长期以来存在着强制死亡查询系统(呈报死亡个案)去调查:

I)在急症室「到达时已经死亡」;

II) 入院二十四小时内死亡;

III) 怀疑谋杀;

IV) 怀疑自杀;

V) 在公众或私人地方发现尸体;

VI) 住院期间任何死亡(不能用已知的医疗情况合理地解释 )

死因裁判法庭与警方、法医及病理学家合作收集有关死亡情况的资料。

closer look at trend in suicide rates by age groups from 1990 2005
Closer look at trend in Suicide Rates (by Age Groups) from 1990-2005

Census and Statistics Dept of HKSAR

leading causes of death in hk
Leading causes of death in HK香港主要死亡原因
  • Malignant neoplasm 恶性肿瘤- 31.8%
  • Cardiac Diseases 心脏病- 15.7%
  • Cerebrovascular Diseases 脑血管疾病- 9.2%
  • Pneumonia 肺炎 - 9.9%
  • COPD慢性阻塞性肺病- 5.7%
  • Renal Diseases肾病- 3.2%
  • Suicide自杀- 2.8%
  • Others其它- 7.5%
who suicide statistics
WHO Suicide Statistics世卫自杀统计
  • According to the latest statistics from WHO, the average global suicide rate is 14/100,000.全球平均自杀率为14/100,000
  • HK ranks 24th while China (rates in selected areas) ranks 27th among 100 countries.在100个国家中,香港排行第二十四,而中国(选择地区)排行第二十七。
  • All top 8 ranking countries are from East Europee.g. Lithuania 38.6/100,000; Hungary 27.7/100,000; Latvia 24.3/100,000).首八位国家都在东欧(例如:立陶宛38.6/100,000;匈牙利27.7/100,000;拉脱维亚24.3/100,000)。
  • Japan ranks 8th (24/100,000), which is highest among Asian countries, followed by Sri Lanka (21.6/100,000) and Korea (17.9/100,000).日本排行第八,是亚洲区中最高,其后是斯里兰卡和韩国。
  • Finland ranks 12th, highest ranking among North European countries (20.6/100,000).

芬兰排行第十二,是北欧国家中最高。

trend in suicide methods in hk
Trend in Suicide methods in HK香港自杀方法趋势
  • Jumping from height (40-60%) across all age groups ever since late 1970’s

由高处堕下(40-60%)是自七十年代后所有年龄组别中最高。

  • Hanging- second commonest method in over 55 yrs old (30%)

在五十五岁以上组别(30%)上吊是第二个最普遍的方法

  • Charcoal burning- second commonest method adopted by 15-55 yrs old (accounted for 1/3 suicide deaths since 2001)

烧炭是15-55岁组别(由2001年占三分一自杀死亡)第二个最普遍的方法。

slide11
Risk factors for completed suicide in adult population in HK-evidence from a recent case-control psychological autopsy study
  • 150 suicide deceased ( death occurring in 2002-04) aged 15-59 were studied using psychological autopsy method (semi-structured diagnostic interview and psychosocial enquiry with proxy-informant); 150 living controls matched by age and gender were randomly selected from a representative pre-selected community sample involved in another epidemiologic survey.
  • Factors found to significantly and independently contribute to suicide were:

Unemployment, indebtedness, being single, psychiatric illness and history of past attempts

(Chen et al, 2006 in Psychological Medicine)

slide12
香港成人自杀的风险因素—从最近的心理剖析研究得出的证据香港成人自杀的风险因素—从最近的心理剖析研究得出的证据
  • 用心理剖析法来研究150位年龄由15至59岁的自杀死者(用半结构诊断访问及心理社会查询来访问死者近亲)而另外150位对照人士亦与死者年龄及性别配合,从社区中随机抽样选出来。
  • 独立地引致自杀的重要因素包括:

失业、负债、单身、精神病及曾经尝试自杀的前科。

(Chen et al, 2006 in Psychological Medicine)

adjusted parameter estimates of risk factors in a logistic regression model p 0 01 p 0 001
Adjusted parameter estimates of risk factors in a logistic regression model (** p<0.01; *** p,0.001)

Chen et al, 2006 in Psychological Medicine

slide14
Logistic regression showing the attributable risk for completed suicide by DSM IV Psychiatric Diagnoses

Chan et al, unpublished data

slide15

烧炭汉酿火警变焦尸

(明报) 2007年09月 21日星期五 05:10AM

【明报专讯】一名染有不良嗜好的男子,怀疑在长沙湾家中烧炭自杀,其间疑炭块烧着床褥,男子被烧成焦尸,浓烟惊动街坊报警。由于消防犬在火场发现易燃物体,消防一度怀疑事件有可疑;警方深入了解后,相信该男子不堪追债临门而轻生。

疑不堪上门追债轻生

charcoal burning suicide in hk
Charcoal burning suicide in HK香港烧炭自杀

First index case in Nov 1998. Largely publicized by media;

Review of Coroners’ record on charcoal burning deaths (Lee et al, 2000) showed that 60% were faced with financial debts and most victims had no prior history of psychiatric illness; this view is substantiated by an ethnographic study on a middle-aged suicide attempters who survived after charcoal burning (Chan et al 2005)

首次发生在1998年11月,传媒广泛报导;

回顾死因裁判法庭关于烧炭死亡的纪录(Lee et al, 2000)显示60%面对债务,很多受害者之前没有精神病历,这种看法后来在中年企图烧炭自杀人士获救后的研究得以被证实(Chan et al, 2005)。

sociodemograhic profile of charcoal burning victims results from the recent pa study
Sociodemograhic profile of charcoal burning victims- results from the recent PA study

Chan et al, unpublished data

psychiatric profile of charcoal burning victims results from the recent pa study
Psychiatric profile of charcoal burning victims- results from the recent PA study

Chan et al, unpublished data

health care utilization pattern in the psychological autopsy cohort
Health care utilization pattern in the psychological autopsy cohort
  • Among the 121 suicide victims with Axis I diagnoses, 60% had attended clinicians and 43% had received treatment from psychiatrists in the six months before death.
  • The overall service contact rate is similar to other case-control PA studies (25-60%).
  • Among the 52 suicide decedents who had seen psychiatrists in their last 6 months, 33% had their last appointments within one week before death and 62% had their last appointment within one month.
slide20
心理剖析群中使用医疗服务的状况
  • 在121自杀死者有主轴I诊断中60%曾看医生及43%在死前六个月曾接受精神科医生诊治。
  • 整体使用率与其它心理剖析研究相近。
  • 在52位过去六个月曾看精神科医生的自杀死者中,有33%曾在死前一个星期覆诊,而62%曾在一个月内覆诊。80%自杀死者有精神分裂征状,死前六个月看过精神科医生。
slide21
Eighty percent of suicide decedents with schizophrenic spectrum disorder had seen psychiatrists in their last 6 months of life. In cases with Mood (Major Depressive Disorder, current episode or lifetime diagnosis, Bipolar Affective Disorder) and Neurotic Spectrum Disorder, less than 50% had consulted with psychiatrists from the public and private sector in their last 6 months of life.
  • Fewer suicide decedents Alcohol Misuse Disorder (20%) and Substance Misuse Disorder (33%) had consulted psychiatrists in the 6 months before death.

(Chan et al, unpublished data)

slide22
有情绪病(抑郁症,包括现在或终身诊断,躁郁症)和神经过敏征状的死者,少过50%曾经在死前六个月看过公立和私家精神科医生。有情绪病(抑郁症,包括现在或终身诊断,躁郁症)和神经过敏征状的死者,少过50%曾经在死前六个月看过公立和私家精神科医生。
  • 很少自杀死者是酗酒(20%)或滥用药物(33%)曾经在死前六个月看过精神科医生。

(Chan et al, unpublished data)

epidemiology of attempted suicide in hk
Epidemiology of attempted suicide in HK香港企图自杀的流行情况
  • No accurate statistics on prevalence of attempted suicide;
  • Estimates from HA figures - 10 times the number of completed suicide occurring in the territory
  • 没有准确统计香港企图自杀的流行状况;
  • 根据医院管理局的估计数字,数目大约是自杀已遂的10倍。
access to professional help in hk
Access to professional help in HK香港寻求专业协助的方法

Hospital-based mental/general medical health service

Primary care in private sector

Psychiatric specialists’ care in private setting

NGO hotlines

Social welfare department- family services centre

医院的精神科/普通科医疗服务

私人基层医疗

私人精神科医生

非政府机构的热线

社会福利署综合家庭服务中心

slide26
Clinical correlates of suicide attempters (observations from a suicide attempters’ cohort presented to a regional service in 2004; N=71)
  • Female= 63%; Male= 37%
  • Mean age= 35 yrs +/- 12
  • Method: DO (59%); Wrist laceration (20%); Jumping from height (20%); charcoal burning (11%)
  • DSM-IV Psych Dx- Adjustment disorder (35.2%); MDD/Dysthymia (47.8%); Bipolar Affective Disorder (1.4%); SA/Alcohol Misuese disorder (11%); Schizophrenic spectrum disorder (15.5%); Anxiety disorder (2.8%)

(Chan & Pang, 2006 in HK J of Psychiatry)

2004 n 71
企图自杀者的临床关系(研究来自2004年寻求地区服务的企图自杀者,N=71)企图自杀者的临床关系(研究来自2004年寻求地区服务的企图自杀者,N=71)
  • 女=63%;男=37%
  • 平均年龄=35岁+/-12
  • 方法:服食药物(59%);割腕(20%);高处堕下(20%);烧炭(11%)
  • 精神科诊断:适应失调(35.2%);抑郁症(47.8%);躁郁症(1.4%);滥用药物/酗酒(11%);精神分裂症(15.5%)焦虑症(2.8%)

(Chan & Pang, 2006 in HK J of Psychiatry)

slide28

Macro-economic correlates of ups and downs in suicide rates

*Global financial crisis and blow to the local stock/property market in 1998;

*2003 SARS Epidemic (relatively well-defined natural disaster with territory-wide effect due to the community quarantine happening at that time, the persistence of economic downturn as well as disruptions in other social infrastructure such as health care services)

*from 1970s’ onwards, there have been rapid expansions of social welfare sector and govt-funded health care services ( including mental health service)

Any speculations in such direction is prone to ecological fallacy.

slide29

自杀率起跌-宏观经济的相关

*1998年全球金融危机及本地股市/地产市场爆破;

2003年沙士(自然灾害令到社区要隔离检疫,持续经济下滑令到其它社会基础,包括医疗服务受影响)

*自1970年代以来,社会福利及政府医疗服务(包括精神科服务)快速增长。

任何在这方面的猜测倾向生态学上的谬误。

slide31
Two Poisson Regression Models of non-elder suicide rates from 1986-2003 using 1986 and 2003 as years of reference respectively
slide32
Gross inspection shows that the suicide rate of the population under age 65 has remained between 8 and 10 per100,000 from 1986 to 1999. There was a steady rise in suicide rate from 2000 onwards, reaching 15.26 per 100,000 in 2003.
  • Poisson regression of annual suicide rates in the population under 65 years of age using 1986 as the reference year shows that suicide rates in 1986-1997 do not differ significantly from the reference year, while rates in 1998-2003 are on the rise, with an IRR of 1.15-1.62 relative to the reference year, reaching statistically significant levels.
  • Despite the rising trend in 1998-2003, the difference in suicide rate in the non-elder population in 2002 and 2003 does not reach statistical significance when Poisson Regression is run using 2003 as the reference.

(Chan et al, 2006. In International J of Geriatric Psychiatry)

slide33
粗略检视看到在1980至1999年,65岁以下自杀率仍然介乎8至10每100,000人,2000年以后有稳定自杀率增加,达到2003年15.26每100,000人。粗略检视看到在1980至1999年,65岁以下自杀率仍然介乎8至10每100,000人,2000年以后有稳定自杀率增加,达到2003年15.26每100,000人。
  • 以1986年作为参考年份,65岁以下全年整体自杀率的Poisson regression,1986-1999年自杀率并非有重大不同于参考年份,当自杀率在1998-2003上升,IRR1.15-1.62相对参考年份,达到统计学上有效程度。
  • 虽然上升趋势在1998-2003,当用2003年作Poisson Regression,2002年非长者人口的自杀率与2003年相比不能得出统计有效。

(Chan et al, 2006. In International J of Geriatric Psychiatry)

slide34

Macro-economic/

political/

societal forces

宏观经济/政治/社会力量

Suicide

自杀

Method

方法

Attempted suicide

企图自杀

Individual factors

e.g. psychiatric disorders,

drug abuse

personality,

impulsivity

cognitive style

个人因素

例如:精神病、

滥用药物、

性格、

冲动、认知方式

Local factors

e.g. social support,

family psychopathology,

local and family resources,

local cultural norms

本地因素

例如:社交支持、

家族精神病、

本地及家庭资源、

本地文化规范

slide35
Acknowledgements:

Coroner’s Office, Government of HKSAR

Forensic Pathology Service, Dept of Health

Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong

Professor Helen Chiu, Suicide Research Unit, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

鸣谢:

香港特别行政区死因裁判法庭

卫生署法医科

香港大学香港赛马会防止自杀研究中心

香港中文大学自杀研究组赵凤琴教授