Geography of Hong Kong - HK is well in side the tropics Tropic of Cancer 北回歸線
Aquatic environment : west - Due to the Pearl River influence, more brackish water habitats in the western side of HK.
Aquatic environment : east - The stronger oceanic current from the Pacific created more marine habitats in the eastern waters of HK
Terrestrial environment: • hilly area (75%)
Fung Shui Wood < 1% Planted woodland 4.5%
Hong Kong Endangered species Reasons for extinction i. Destruction of habitats ii. Reckless predation of wild animals iii. Economic development: polllution http://www.afcd.gov.hk/tc_chi/conservation/conservation.html
Hong Kong Endangered species • Mammals • Marine • Only two species regularly occur in HK waters • i. 江豚 Finless porpoise • More common in eastern HK waters e.g. Sai Kung • ii. 中華白海豚 Chinese White Dolphin • More common in the western waters of HK e.g. North Lantau. A marine park at Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau has been set up to protect this species.
b. amphibians • i. HK Newt • Occur in clean mountain streams • Of potential global importance • Once thought endemic to HK, recently found in various parts of Guangdong.
ii. Romer’s Tree Frog • Endemic to HK and globally important • Found on several islands only • Once threatened by the Chep Lap Kok Airport development • The former Chek Lap Kok population has been relocated to several places on the New Territories
b. birds • Greater Painted Snipe 彩 鷸 • A locally important species. Two sites (nesting) found in HK, one at Kam Tin, the other one at Long Valley • 2. Black-faced Spoonbill 黑臉琶鷺 • - Globally threatened! World population estimated at 660! Nest at Korea and northest China. Winter at Japan, Taiwan, HK, Macau, and north Vietnam. About 138 – 152 winter at Mai Po in the last few years.
3. White-bellied Sea Eagle 白腹海鵰 • - Regionally important. About ten pairs regularly nesting along HK’s coast. The pair near HK Disneyland may be affected by the theme park development.
d. Others • 馬蹄蟹 Horseshoe Crab • Threatened by hunting and habitat destruction.
-Insect • 黃扇蝶 Birdwing Butterfly Triodes helena • Protected in HK • Freshwater fresh • 黑歧尾鬥魚 Black Paradise Fish Macropodus hongkongensis • Identity recently confirmed • Globally important species
Group discussion Suggest three ways to conserve biodiversity in HK. • concrete - actionable - effective • innovative / already implemented You may refer to p.10-11 of the notes for some hints
3.What can we do? a. establish sanctuary area • 38% land already protected good: forest, woodland, grassland poor: wetland, field, fung-shui wood
e.g. Prevention of hill fire e.g. Re-plantation
c. Stop illegal hunting 小靈貓 豹貓
棕鼯鼠 d. Reintroduce lost species 白鷴
e. Prevent the establishment of foreign species Mikania 薇金菊 Oryzias curvinotus 弓背青魚將 Gambusia affinis食蚊魚
References Chau, L., Lau, M., Hau, B. and Siu, G. 2000. The Present Status and Conservation of the Biodiversity in Hong Kong. China Biodiversity, 8(1): 25-35 Ashworth, J.M., Corlett, R.T., Dudgeon, D., Melville, D.S. and Tang, W.S.M. 1993. Hong Kong Flora and Fauna: computing Conservation, Hong Kong Ecological Database. World Wide Fund for Nature Hong Kong, 24 pp. Dudgeon, D. and Corlett, R. 1994. Hills and Streams: An Ecology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press, 234 pp. Morton, B. and Morton, J. 1983. The Sea Shore Ecology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press, 350pp. Morton, B. and Ruxton, J. 1992. Hoi Ha Wan. World Wide Fund for Nature Hong Kong, 55pp.
For images to help prepare teaching materials, may consider the following books: Viney, C., Phillipps, K. and Lam, C.Y. 1994. Birds of Hong Kong and South China. Sixth edition. Government Printer, Hong Kong. Karsen, S.J., Lau, M.W.N. and Bogadel, A. 1998. Hong Kong Amphibians and Reptiles. 2nd Edition. Provisional Urban Council, Hong Kong. Lam, K.S. 2002. Freshwater Fish in Hong Kong. Friends of the Country Parks, Hong Kong. Young, J.J. & Yiu, V. 2002. Butterfly Watching in Hong Kong. Wan Ki Book Co. Ltd., Hong Kong. Wilson, K.D.P. 1995. Hong Kong Dragonflies. Urban Council, Hong Kong. Ades, G.W.J., Lau, M.W.N. and Crow, P.A. 2002. Mammals of Tai Po Kau Nature Reserve. Friends of the Country Parks, Hong Kong.
HK has abundant rainfall and a mild temperature range Mean annual rainfall 2214 mm; mean annual temperature 22.8 °C
c. amphibia i. HK newt ii. Romer’s frog
Example: 豪豬 Malayan Porcupine http://www.afcd.gov.hk/conservation/con_e.htm
香港拖鞋蘭 Lady’s Slipper Orchid 豬籠草 Pitcher Plant